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Flashcards in More micro basics Deck (11):

obligate aerobes

M TB, pseudomonas, nocardia.
remember, pseudomonas is seen in burns, complications of DM, nosocomial pneumonia, and pneumonia in cystic fibrosis


obligate anaerobes examples. why are the obligate anaerobes? Special treatment considerations?

clostridium, bacteroides, and actinomyces. no catalase or superoxide dismutase, so they are susceptible to oxidative damage. Aminoglycosides are ineffectve because they require O2 to enter the bacterial cell


obligate intracellular bugs

rickettsia, chlamydia


encapsulated bacteria: what are the encapsulated bacteria, virulence factor, vaccine approach

SHiNE SKiS: salmonella, HiB, Neisseria, E. coli, Strep pneumo, Klebsiella pneumo, group B strep.
capsules are antiphagocytic virulence factor, and vaccines have capsule and protein conjugate.
give S pneumo, HiB, and N. meningitidis vaccine to asplenic ppl


What are the catalase positive organisms?

staph, pseudomonas, listeria, aspergillus, candida, E. coli, serratia. bad for ppl with chronic granulomatous disease.
(PLACESS: pseudomonas, listeria, aspergillus, candida, E. coli, Staph, serratia)


Why might we conjugate polysaccharides to carrier proteins when we design vaccines? Examples?

because a polysaccharide alone cannot be presented to T cells. HiB and meningococcal vaccines are both conjugates; both conjugated and unconjugated pneumococcal vaccines exist.


What is urease and what are the urease positive organisms?

cryptococcus, H. pylori, proteus, ureaplasma, nocardia, klebsiella, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus.


What are the 4 pigment producing bacteria?

actinomyces israelii: yellow "sulfur" granules made of bacterial filaments. S. aureus: yellow pigment. Pseudomonase aeruginosa: blue/green pigment; Serratia marcescens: red pigment.


protein A: function, relevant bug

binds Fc region of IgG and prevents opsonization and phagocytosis. expressed by S. aureus. this is a bacterial virulence factor.


IgA protease

enzyme that cleaves IgA. secreted by S. pneumo, HiB, and Neisseria to colonize the respiratory mucosa


M protein

helps prevent phagocytosis. expressed by group A strep