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Flashcards in Parasitology Deck (76)
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1

Special organelles of flagellates

kinetoplast (Leishmania, Trypanosoma) glycosome

2

Flagellate locomotion

flagellum undulating membrane

3

Flagellate life cycles

may be intra or extracellular binary fission fecal-oral or venereal transmission

4

Special organelles of amoebas

pseudopods amoebostome

5

Amoeba locomotion

Pseudopods

6

Amoeba life cycles

direct, fecal oral transmission

7

Special organelles of coccidians

apical complex for host cell penetration rhoptry conoid microneme dense granules

8

Coccidian locomotion

actin-based gliding motility

9

Coccidian life cycle

3 phases; sporogony, excystation, endogenous development

10

Sporogony

development of the unsporulated noninfectious coccidain oocyst into the sporulated infectious oocyst

11

Excystation

occurs in the host; sporozoites are released from sporocysts

12

Endogenous development

sporozoites penetrate cells and undergo schizogony, form trophozoooites, which develop into schhizonts

13

Special organelles of ciliates

two different types of nucleu (nuclear dimorphism) - germ line defined by micronucleus cytostome

14

Ciliate locomotion

two types of cilia - somatic cilia (kineties) oral cilia for feeding

15

Ciliate life cycle

sexual reproduction by conjugation transverse fission fecal oral trans mission

16

Special organelles of microsporidia

polar tube anchoring disk polaroplast posterior vacuole

17

Microsporidian locomotion

nonmotile

18

Microsporidian life cycle

ingestion, inhalation of resistant spores uses polar tube to penetrate host cells, sporoplasm is extruded into the cell then divides to create meronts, divides, converts into sporonts, converts to sporoblasts, then to spores

19

Order Monogenea

primitive flukes of fish - Gyrodactylus and Dactylogyrus Direct life cycles <5 days Hermaphroditic

20

opisthaptor

bulbus, disc-shaped adhesive organ of Monogenea flukes

21

Order Digenea

Includes Schistosomes, Faschiolids, Paragonimus Indirect life cycle with mollusk intermediate host Asexual reproduction and hermaphroditic sexual reproduction phase in vertebrate host

22

strobila

body of a cestode (tapeworm)

23

scolex

anterior end of a cestode, anchoring organ

24

coracidium

free swimming larval form of cestode

25

what is the first intermediate host of Psudophllidean cestodes?

Copepods

26

what is the second intermediate host of Pseudophyllidean cestodes?

vertebrate, various species

27

metacestode forms of cyclophyllidean cestodes

cysticeroid (invertebrate) cysticercus hydatid coenurus strobilolcercus

28

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

 

Chyeletiella cuniculi

Rabbit

Direct

Large, curved palpal claws

29

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Eimeria steidae

Rabbit

Prepatent period 14-18 days, patent period 21-37 days

Oocysts in fecal smears or floats; characteristic hepatic changes

30

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Psoroptes cuniculi

Rabbit 

Direct, 21 days

jointed pedicels of the tarsal suckers

31

Genus species

Host - Rabbit

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Passalurus ambiguus

Rabbit

Direct; prepatent period 56-64 days

Eggs in feces; adults in colon or cecum

 

 

32

Rabbit brain tissue

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Encephalitozoon cuniculi

Rabbit, rodents, carnivores, NHPs

Ingestion of spores in urine; shedding up to 60 days

Geimsa or Goodpasture's carbol fuschin stains; characteristic renal lesions

 

 

33

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Toxoplasma gondii

rabbit, cat, guinea pig, other mammals

cat is definitive host, others are aberrant hosts; infection through ingestion of sporulated oocysts in cat feces

Wright-Geimsa stain

34

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Giardia lamblia

Multiple host species

Trophozooites and cysts on fecal smears or floats (Zn sulfate)

35

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Spironucleus muris

Mouse, rat, hamster

Direct, ingestion of infectous cysts, colonozation of the crypts of Leiberkuhn

Periodic acid-Schiff or silver stains; wet mount microscopy

 

36

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Isospora canis

Dog, swine, cat, ferret

Direct life cycle

Organisms on fecal exam

37

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Ichthyophthirius multifilis

fish

Host and environmental life stages

C-shaped macronucleus in the trophont

38

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Trypanosoma cruzii

Macaque, human, squirrel monkey, dog

reduviid bug intermediate host (6-15 days)

Large terminal kinetoplast, narrow undulating membrane, long free flagellum

 

39

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Piscenoodinium pillulare (gold dust disease)

fish

Direct, 10-14 days

oval, opaque nonmotile trophonts

40

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Plasmodium vivax (malaria)

Macaque

Indirect, Anopheles mosquito intermediate host

Geimsa stain

41

Genus species

Host - Zebrafish

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Zebrafish

Horizontal and vertical transission; ingestion of infective spores in the inveronment

Visualization of spores on wet mount and histopathology of CNS - gram-positive, acid-fast, Luna stain brick red.

42

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Aspiculuris tetraptera

Mouse, rat, gerbils, hamster, other rodents

Direct, prepatent period 23 days

Adult worms in cecum and colon, eggs in float, longer embryonation time

43

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Aspiculuris tetraptera

Mouse, rat, hamster, gerbil, other rodents

Direct, prepatent period 23 days

Eggs found in fecal float, adults in colon or cecum

44

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Syphacia obvelata

Mouse, rat, gerbil, hamster, voles

Direct, eggs deposited on perianal region, prepatent period 11-15 days

Detection of eggs on perianal tape test, adults in intestine

"Syphacia is speedy,  sticky, and skinny"

45

Genus species

Host - rat bladder

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Trichosomoides crassicauda

Rat bladder worm

Ingestion of embryonated eggs, prepatent period 55 days, more common in males

adults in urinary bladder, eggs in urine (bioperculate - whipworm)

46

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm)

Mouse, hamster, rat

Direct (only known cestode), 14-16 days; Indirect transmission via flea intermediate host

Eggs in feces, adults in small intestine (scolex bears hooks unlike Hymenolepsis diminuta)

 

47

Genus species

Host - mouse

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Polyplax serrata (common mouse louse)

Mouse

Direct, 13 days

Specific to mice

48

Genus species

Host - rat

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Polyplax spinulosa

Rat

Direct, 26 days

Rat specific

49

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Myobia musculi

Mouse, rat, other murid rodents

Direct, 23 days, non-burrowing

Clasping first pair of legs, empodial claw on remaining 3 pairs of legs

50

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Mycoptes musculinus

mouse, rat, guinea pig

Direct, 14 days

First two pairs of legs have abulacral suckers

51

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Radfordia affinis/ensifera

Mouse/rat

Direct, 23 days, non-burrowing

Bulges between legs, grasping claws in first pair of legs

affinis - paired, unequal tarsal claws on second pair of legs

ensifera - paired, equal tarsal claws on second pair of legs

52

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Sarcoptes scabiei

Dog, rabbbit, swine, ZOONOTIC

Direct, 10-14 days, burrowing

Intense pruritis

 

53

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Toxocara canis

Dog

Direct, may be transmitted in utero or by fecal-oral contact

Eggs in feces, adults in intestinge, granulomatous lesions in tissues

54

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Toxocara canis

Dog

Direct, may be transmitted in utero or by fecal-oral contact

Eggs in feces, adults in intestinge, granulomatous lesions in tissues

55

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Tricuris vulpis

Dog

Direct, prepatent period 90 days

Bioperculate eggs, adults with long tails

56

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Tricuris vulpis

Dog

Direct, prepatent period 90 days

Bioperculate eggs, adults with long tails

57

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm)

Dog

Direct, infection via ingestion or skin penetration

subglobular buccal cavity with three well-developed teeth on each side; 2-8 cell stage egg

58

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm)

Dog

Direct, infection via ingestion or skin penetration

subglobular buccal cavity with three well-developed teeth on each side; 2-8 cell stage egg

59

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Dirofilaria immitis

Dog; cat, ferret aberrant hosts

Indirect, mosquito intermediate host, prepatent period 6-8 months

Adult in blood smear, antigen testing

60

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Dipylidium caninum

Dog, cat

Indirect, flea or louse intermediate hosts, 2-4 weeks for adults to mature

Gravid proglottid or egg capsules in feces or perianal region

61

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Otodectes synotis

Dog, cat, ferret, rabbit

Direct, 18-28 days

Ear cytology

 

62

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick)

Dog, cat

Indirect, may transmit Rickettsia spp, Francisella tularensis

Short capitulum, presence of festoons

 

63

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)

Dog, wild rodents, rabbits

Indirect, may infest larger mammals; may transmit Rickettsia and Francisella tularensis

Short capitulum, presence of festoons, yellow and brown scutum

64

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Ixodes scapularis (deer tick)

Dog, rodent

Rodent intermediate host; vector for Borellia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Babesia

Long capitulum, lack of festoons, round scutum

 

65

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea)

Multiple mammals species

Indirect, only adults live on host, may transmit Dipylidium caninum

Visualization of adults or digested blood on host

66

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Vector for what disease?

Haematopinus suis

Swine

Direct, host specific

visualization of adults on skin

swine pox

67

Genus species

Host - guinea pig

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Trixaxarus caviae

Guinea pig

Direct

Dorsal anus vs. terminal anus in S. scabiei; simple dorsal setae (not spinous); many pointed scales vs. few, rounded scales in N. cati

68

Genus species

Host - zebra fish

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Zebra fish

Direct or via oligochete paratenic hosts

Adults on wet mount, eggs have bi-polar plugs

69

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Gyrodactylus spp.

Xenopus, fishes

Direct, infection through contaminated water; obligate parasite

Bilobed anterior tip; posterior attachement organ (haptor) with hooks

 

 

70

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Polystoma spp.

amphibians

adults in urinary bladder; 2 week incubation for eggs, 3 week maturation of ocomiracidium

6 pedunculated suckers

71

Genus species

Hosts

Life cycle

Diagnosis

Pseudocapillaroides xenopi

Xenopus

Direct, eggs shed into environment, burrows into epidermis

skin scraping wet mount - adults present, eggs with bi-polar plugs

72

Genus and species

Argulus japonicus

73

Genus and species

Chirodiscoides caviae

74

Gyropus ovalis

guinea pig louse

75

Gliricola porcelli

76

Genus and Species

 

Ornithonyssis bacoti