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Flashcards in Parental Investment Deck (11):
1

What are the 4 types of parental care

1. no parental care
2. maternal care
3. paternal care
4. biparental care

2

What are the 3 causes of early mortality

1. predation - separated from mother or lack of care
2. food stress
3. infanticide

3

Why is the sex of an infant important

1. biology - males are the fragile and costly sex
2. culture - certain sex may be more important and valued more

4

2 examples of sex ratio and birth timing

1. high quality red deer hinds give birth to sons early in the season. low quality give birth to daughters late in the season

2. high status macaques give birth to daughters early in the season

5

Factors for post natal investment

1. males more likely to die and are more costly
2. delay before next conception. longer delay after daughters in macaques

6

factors for infanticide in humans

1. uncertainty surrounding paternity - only invest if there is a high certainty. males demand assurances e.g virgin brides and making dress conservative, chaperones

2. low quality infant - severe physical deformities, low evolutionary pay off e.g unlikely to reproduce

3. lack of parental resources - have to raise in a poor environment. conserve resources and invest when conditions improve

7

2 examples of grandmothers helping

1. elephants - infants more likely to survive when grandmother helps raise

2. humans - grandmothers help with income

8

What is parental investment

Care or effort invested in current offspring that reduces the capacity to invest in future offspring

9

What is parental effort

Measure of the effort required to care for offspring

10

What is parental care

Behaviour by 1 or both parents that contribute to the survival of offspring

11

What is the sex ratio bias

If 1 sex has greater variance in reproductive success

And

Mothers vary in physical condition

Then

There are differences in preference in sex of offspring