Part 1 - Chapter 1 What Logic Studies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 1 - Chapter 1 What Logic Studies Deck (23):
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A group of statements of which one (the conclusion) is claimed to follow from the others (the premises)

Argument

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A sentence that is either true or false.

Statement

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The information intended to provide support for a conclusion.

Premise

3

The statement that is claimed to follow from the premises of an argument.

Conclusion

4

The study of reasoning.

Logic

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Every statement is either true or false; these two possibilities are called truth values.

Truth value

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The information content imparted by a statement, or, simply put, it's meaning.

Proposition

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A term used by logicians to refer to the reasoning process that is expressed by an argument.

Inference

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Words and phrases that indicate the presence of a conclusion (the statement claimed to follow from premises).

Conclusion indicator

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Words and phrases that help us recognize arguments by indicating the presence of premises (statements being offered in support of a conclusion).

Premise indicator

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If a passage expresses a reasoning process--that the conclusion follows from the premises--then we say that it makes an inferential claim.

Inferential claim

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An explanation provides reasons for why or how an event occurred. By themselves, explanations are not arguments; however, they can form part of an argument.

Explanation

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An argument in which it is claimed that the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises. In other words, it is claimed that under the assumption that the premises are true it is impossible for the conclusion to be false.

Deductive argument

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An argument in which it is claimed that the premises make the conclusion probable. In other words, it is claimed that under the assumption that the premises are true it is improbable for the conclusion to be false.

Inductive argument

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An argument in which, assuming the premises as true, it is impossible for the conclusion to be false. In other words, the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises.

Valid deductive argument

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When logical analysis shows that a deductive argument is valid, and when truth value analysis of the premises shows they are all true, the argument is sound.

Sound argument

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An argument in which, assuming the premises are true, it is possible for the conclusion to be false. In other words, the conclusion does not follow necessarily from the premises.

Invalid deductive argument

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If a deductive argument is invalid, or if at least one of the premises are false (truth value analysis), then the argument is unsound.

Unsound argument

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An argument such that if the premises are assumed to be true, then the conclusion is probably true. In other words, if the premises are assumed to be true, then it is improbable that the conclusion is false.

Strong inductive argument

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A counterexample to a statement is evidence that shows the statement is false. A counterexample to an argument shows the possibility that premises assumed to be true do not make the conclusion necessarily true. A single counterexample to a deductive argument is enough to show that the argument is invalid.

Counterexample

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An argument such that if the premises are assumed to be true, then the conclusion is not probably true.

Weak inductive argument

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An inductive argument is cogent when the argument is strong and the premises are true.

Cogent argument

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An inductive argument is uncogent if either or both of the following conditions hold: the argument is weak, or the argument has at least one false premise.

Uncogent argument