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Identify 5 political/economic/cultural factors which have complicated Britain's relationship with the EU since 1945.

1. Ideological splits in the Labour party: leading to the 1975 referendum
2. Britain is less agricultural than other nations like France, so Thatcher negotiated the rebate of 66% of the UK's net contribution in 1984
3. There were splits in the Tory party under John Major- he had to secure two opt outs from the social chapter and the euro, beginning the process of a two speed Europe.
4. Blair entrenched this further by opting out of schengen
5. Pressure from UKIP and immigration: the average monthly salary in the UK is €2337, whereas in Poland it is €756


“Why has the Labour party broadly favoured a pro-EU stance in recent years?”

In 1983 the party stood on anti eu-platform: a manifesto Gerald Kauffman described as "the longest suicide note in history"- from then on they have tried to distance themselves from the leadership of Foot, leading them to adopt a more pro EU stance.

2. Jaques Delors speech to the TUC in 1998 was pivotal- he began to emphasise the 'social dimension', furthered by the social chapter signed by Robin Cook in 1997- as well as the 2003 EU Working Time Directive. (Stipulates workers must have a break every 6 hours) All pro-workers rights, turning the EU from it's old image as a 'capitalist club'

3. Plus New Labour's pro-free trade and pro-business agenda: In the 2001 manifesto Blair argued "The EU is a crucial market, accounting for over half our trade" - goes hand in hand with their other neo-liberal policies

3. Plus the internationalist dimension to Blair's time in office was seen to be facilitated by the EU- post of High Representative for Foreign affairs was created with the Lisbon treaty in 2007 in a speech to the European Parliament in 2005, Blair argued that “When the European Union agreed a doubling of aid to Africa, it was an immediate boost not just for the troubled continent but for European cooperation.”

4. Although Corbyn is flip-flopping


When was the Delors speech and why was it such crucial turning point?

1988 to the TUC- it emphasised the social, pro-workers' rights aspect of the EU and brought the Labour party onside, getting rid of it's old image as a 'capitalist club'.