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Flashcards in Past q 1 Deck (52)
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1

What are nociceptors?

It is a receptor of a sensory neuron (nerve cell). Pain reception " sensation is based on receptor function of nociceptive free nerve endings

2

What are proprioceptors?

Receptor is found in the same organ (muscle) as the effector (muscle). It is maintaining muscular tone. Definition: detection of changes in body posture. Function: information about
the posture and gait

3

What are exteroceptive reflex?

Receptor is found in an organ (skin) different from that of the effector (muscle)

4

What is Hyperalgesia?

Is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves

5

Myasthenia gravis

Is an autoimmune disease or congenital neuromuscular disease, which results from antibodies that block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the junction between nerve and muscle. This prevents nerve impulses from triggering muscle contraction " muscle weakness.

6

If craniocervical part of spine damaged, what happens?

No UMN to front - and hind limb (Tetra paresis)
Respiratory failure
Decreased proprioception

7

Thoracolumbar part of spine damaged:

No LMN to hind limb
Front limb: normal

8

Caudocervical part of spine damaged:

Front limb: LMN
Hind limb: UMN

9

Lumbosacral part of spine damaged:

Front limb: normal
Hind limb: LMN

10

Altered function in LMN results in:

Hyporeflexy
Hypo-/atonia of muscles
Flaccid paresis

11

Greek meaning of “apoptosis”:

“Falling off” " programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms

12

Released in acute stress:

Catecholamine’s (Epinephrine (adrenalin), Norepinephrine)

13

Released in chronic stress:

Glucocorticoids

14

What can cause grass tetany?

Lack of magnesium (Hypomagnesaemia)

15

Pathogenesis of milk fever?

Decreased Ca. Decreased P. Increased Mg

16

Steroid hormones can cause:

Cushing’s disease (Hyperadrenocorticism)

17

Blood loss anaemia:

Acute bleeding leading to hypovolaemia

18

Chronic blood loss:

Caused by iron (Fe) deficiency

19

Urolith/bladder stone is caused by:

High P

20

Cushing ́s disease is the same as:

Hyperadrenocorticism

21

Addison ́s disease is the same as:

Hypoadrenocorticism

22

Which is a lipoprotein?

Is a group of soluble proteins that combine with and transport fat or other lipids in the blood
plasma. HDL, LDL, VLDL, IDL

23

Non-regenerative anaemia can be caused by:

Bracken fern toxicosis (pteridium aquilinum)

24

What can be the causes of haemolysis:

Babesia, is a protozoan parasite that infects red blood cells causing a disease known as babesiosis

25

Cheyne-Stokes breathing:

Gradual increase of breathing, followed by a gradual decrease in breathing, and then followed by a period of apnea

26

Hypothermia means:

Occurs when your body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature and organ malfunction

27

In cholestasis:

Increase of GGT and ALKP

28

Altered function in UMN will result in:

Hyperreflexy
Spastic paresis
Rigidity

29

CRT acts on the:

Pituitary gland

30

Methaemoglobin is caused by:

Nitrates or copper

31

What are xenobiotics:

Foreign chemical not usually found in an organism (antibiotics and food additives)

32

Obstipation:

Extreme and persistent constipation caused by obstruction in the intestinal system

33

Vitium (defect) is a:

Stable condition

34

Is Mg important for iso-osmosis?

Not important

35

Venous pressure in the kidney:

Hypovolemic shock

36

Which is the most severe dehydration?

Hypertonic (total global dehydration)

37

Inflammation hemodynamic:

Vessel permeability increase

38

Ion involved in arrhythmias:

K+ (potassium)

39

Increase acid:

Increase anion gap.

40

Hypochloraemia is caused by:

Vomiting, abdominal displacement, diarrhea and sweating in horses

41

DIC is:

Not a primary condition

42

Left Displaced Abomasum / Right Displaced Abomasum is most common:

LDA most common without torsion
RDA is more severe, most often with torsion

43

Ethylene glycol toxicosis:

Metabolites damage the kidneys

44

Oncotic pressure decrease:

Less fluid taken back into the blood = filtration increases

45

Dalmatians:

Has no uricase enzyme, uric acid excretion decrease. Gout can occur

46

What is gout?

A form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint

47

Rhabdomyolysis:

Breakdown of striated muscles (low O2, free radicals, electrolyte imbalance, infection)

48

Spinal injury location:

Narrowed down to 1 of 4 sections

49

Which cranial nerve affects mastication in dog?

5th nerve, trigeminal nerve

50

Which cranial nerve affects mastication in horse?

7th nerve, facial nerve

51

Which cranial nerve affects mastication in ruminants?

12th nerve, hypoglossal nerve

52

Botulism. What does it inactivate?

Blocks nerve function through inhibition of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter)