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Flashcards in Past q 2 Deck (53)
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1

Na concentration?

140-150 mmol/L

2

What is true?

Genetic diseases are always congenital

3

What is osteomalacia?

Softening of bones, typically due to a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium

4

What is wrong about starvation?

Is not a storage disorder

5

Low iron in piglets is caused by:

Poor iron stores

6

What is true?

Vomiting cause alkalosis

7

Increased acid

Causes increased anion gap

8

Liver enzymes increase in:

Liver malfunction

9

Which is correct?

Congenital defect in growth hormone leads to dwarfism

10

Renal osteopathy:

Mineral mobilization from bones

11

Apoptosis in embryo:

Forms cavities and fingers

12

What is not correct?

Vitamin E and Se cause encephalomalatica

13

Incorrect statement about free radicals:

Saturated fats are more susceptible

14

Sub-ileus:

Lumen is partially occluded or blocked

15

Paralytic ileus:

Blockage of intestine due to paralysis of the intestine

16

Leukotriene’s:

Eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes. Regulate the immune responses is to trigger contractions in the smooth muscles lining the bronchioles; their overproduction is a major cause of inflammation in asthma and allergic rhinitis

17

Blood brain barrier:

Slow diffusion - glucose, VFA, amino acids, antibiotics
Fast diffusion - CO2, O2, drugs, anesthetics narcotics, non-polar + small molecules like urea
No diffusion - HCO3-, albumin, ammonia

18

B12 deficiency:

Macrocytic. NORMO-chromic

19

What is allodynia?

Allodynia is a clinical feature of many painful conditions. Such as neuropathies, complex regional pain syndrome, post-herpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, and migraine. Allodynia may also be caused by some populations of stem cells used to treat nerve damage including spinal
cord injury

20

Impulse formative disorder

Tetany, convulsion

21

Lactobacilli, when do they overgrow?

In case of cytolytic vaginosis. Leads to acidity and irritation

22

In case of frothy bloat. What helps the animal?

Antifoaming agent

23

Fatty liver. Disturbances in gluconeogenesis and..?

Decreased transport of lipoprotein production (e.g. VLDL)

24

LMN

Also called lower motor neuron. For voluntary movement of eyes, tongue, face " vocalization, swallowing and chewing

25

What is atrophy?

Decreased size of the muscle, partial or complete wasting away a part of the body

26

What is hypotonia?

Decreased tone of the muscle, “floppy baby syndrome”

27

Vitamin E is an?

Antioxidant: against free radical, prevent LDL formation, anticoagulant and prevent oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid

28

Ions in the extra-cellular space:

Cations: Na+ and Ca2+ // Anions: Cl- and HCO3

29

Cats regarding bilirubin. What is special about it?

Cats tend more to have Bilirubinuria

30

What is a not a “production disorder”?

Starvation

31

What stimulate gastric acid production?

Gastrin, Acetylcholine and Histamine (and ghrelin)

32

What is vitium?

A fault, defect or vice.

33

What is apoptosis?

The death of cells, which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or
development

34

Diabetes insipidus. Does ADH decrease or increase?

ADH decrease

35

Lipids in cell membrane?

Phospholipids, Sphingomyelin and Glycolipids

36

Where is vitamin E an anti-oxidant?

Inside the cell membrane

37

Thrombocytopenia is the most common hematological disorder?

Quantitative disorder

38

Clinical sign of hematological disorder?

Patechia, ecchymosis, hematoma, hemothorax, hemoperitoneum and hemopericardium

39

How do you measure APTT?

Intrinsic pathway: silicon dioxide as activator

40

Extrinsic and intrinsic pathway?

Intrinsic: APTT // Extrinsic: PT // Common: TT, everything increase

41

When is UBG found in urine?

Pre hepatic and hepatic icterus

42

Which disease doesn’t occur in this state?

White muscle disease

43

Portosystemic shunt, when does it occur?

Intrahepatic - often in large breed dogs

44

Heart stops in systole or diastole in some compulsory state.

Diastole

45

Shock enzyme of the liver?

AST and ALT increase

46

Gastric mucosal barriers

Epithelial cells, mucous secretion and layer of bicarbonate ions

47

What is true about free radicals?

It is a highly reactive and unstable molecule; they will stabilize by stealing/receiving an electron from a nearby molecule

48

Von Willebrand's disease; what is true?

Congenital, factor 8

49

Uricosis/gout which one is correct

Uric acid precipitates around blood vessels and joints

50

Frothy bloat of a cow is developed

It is caused when feed is concentrates (high in protein and lipids
Always acute, life threatening condition

51

Hoflund ́s syndrome

Clinical sign: bloat // Cause: foreign body in the reticulum causing reticulo-peritonitis

52

Dalmatian and gout, what is false?

Allantoin cannot turn to uric acids

53

Frothy bloat on the cow and the ions involved

Calcium and Phosphate increase