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Flashcards in Past qs 2018/19 Deck (28)
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1

Sentences on Lead
1. What organ it accumulates in with what ion deficiency
3. It inhibits...synthesis and the level of ALA...but in dogs it stays the same

1. What organ it accumulates in with what ion deficiency
- Accumulates in bones
- Deficient Mg-Fe
3. It inhibits...synthesis and the level of ALA...but in dogs it stays the same
- Inhibits heme synthesis
- ALA increases (gets accumulated)

2

Sentences on fluoride
-Organs and tissues it accumulates in: ?
-An ion that reduces its absorption ?
-What form is it in the blood? ?
-It's excreted in the .... in ..... form

-Organs and tissues it accumulates in BONE, TEETH, (HAIR, SOFT TISSUE)
-An ion that reduces its absorption CA2+ COMPOUNDS
-What form is it in the blood? CaF2
-It's excreted in the .... in ..... form IN KIDNEY (ionised form) WITH CA2+

3

Match the plant to its toxin (6)
-Deadly nightshade
-Bitter almond
-Autumn crocus
-Monkshood
-Lilly of the valley

-Deadly nightshade TROPANE ALKALOID: ATROPINE, SCOPOLAMINE, HYOSCIAMINE
-Bitter almond CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE, cyanide
-Autumn crocus COLCHICINE
-Monkshood ACONITINE
-Lilly of the valley Convallatoxin, saponine (SAPONINE, VOLATILE OIL, CARDIOACTIVE GLYCOSIDE: CONVALLATOXIN, CONVALLOSIDE CONVALLAMAROZIDE, CONVALLARIN
CONVALLAMARIN)

4

New questions:
- What is the most toxic plant part: see plant list!
- What does CO bind to?
- What is not toxic in ethylene glycol poisoning:
- What is not used for nitrite poisoning?
- Most sensitive to atropine?

- What is the most toxic plant part: see plant list!
- What does CO bind to? CO-Hb
- What is not toxic in ethylene glycol poisoning: ethylene glycol
- What is not used for nitrite poisoning? Acetylcystein
- Most sensitive to atropine? cat?

5

Ethylene glycol toxicosis; antidote with time, concentration and dosage

- Ethanol (20%) 5ml/kg IV every 4-6h
- Fomepizole: 20 mg/kg

6

Other name for Fomepizole, primary lesion organ, and changes of it, the enzymes and acids

Other name: 4-methyl-pirazole, Antizol
Specific inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase ethanol
Primary lesions: Nervous system, CV, kidneys
Acidic metabolites: mainly glycolic acid

7

What happens in anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning? (Negative marking)

Anaemia, prehep. icterus, hematomas, epistaxis and hemoperitoneum

8

Dithiocarbamate mechanism

-Alcohol-dehydrogenase, AchE inhibition metabolic effects
-Disturb endogenous NA synthesis tachycardia, hypotension
-Acetaldehyde intoxication
-Inhibition coversion of inorganic iodine to organic goiter
-Reproductive problems (testis atrophy)
-Mutagenic, teratogenic, embriotoxic
-Local irritative effect (skin, mucosa)
-Peripheral demyelination
-Degeneration (skeletal muscle/heart)

9

Pralidoxime uses

Organophosphate antidote

10

Where ... act:
-Satratoxin
-Penitrem
-Phomopsin
-Zearalenon
-Ochratoxin
-Aflatoxin
-Fumonisin
-T-2 toxin

-Satratoxin - GIT
-Penitrem - Nervous system
-Phomopsin - Liver
-Zearalenon - Genitals
-Ochratoxin - Kidneys
-Aflatoxin - Liver
-Fumonisin - Nervous system
-T-2 toxin - GIT

11

Blue star
- Poisonous component: ?
- Poisonous part: ?
- CS: ?
- Treatment: ?

- Poisonous component: Indole alkalois (LSD) + glycosides (GI)
- Poisonous part: Seed
- CS: hallucinogenic (behavioral aberrations), GI signs, hypotension
- Treatment:
-GI decontamintion: emesis/gastric lavage, activated charcoal
-Seizures: Diazepam, Barbiturates

12

Animal most susceptible to Fumonisin

Swine, horse

13

Types of blood problems: give poison, colour and treatment
1. MethHb
2. Inhibition of cytochrome oxydase
3. CO-Hb
4. Displacing oxygen

1. MethHb: Nitrate/nitrite - Chocolate brown - Methylene blue
2. Inhibition of cytochrome oxydase: Cyanide - Cherry Red - Nitrite + thiosulphate
3. CO-Hb: CO - Cherry red - Fresh air, O2 5%CO2
4. Displacing oxygen: CO2 - Dark (blue) - Oxygen, Fresh air

14

Copper toxicosis (species/where it accumulates/toxic dose/where it goes/treatment w. dose/symptoms)

- Species: sheep, cattle, swine
- Accumulation in liver
- Treatment: antidotes
-Toxic dose?
- D-penicillamine: 20 mg/kg po, for 6 days
- CaNa2-EDTA: 20-50 mg/kg iv
- CS: GI – salivation, vomiting, colic, diarrhea (greenish tinges); collapse, covulsions, paralysis, death (1-2 days)

15

Aspirin/Muscarine/Theobromine – 3 different sentences, had to give if urine was acidic/alkaline then what you give

- NSAIDs: Alkalyzing urine: NaHCO3
- Teobromine: Acidify urine: vitamin C
- Muscarine?

16

Underline 5 molecules with hyperthermia (negative marking)

Organochlorines
Nitrophenols/chlorophenols
Metaldehyde
Xanthine derivatives

17

Match the sentences: Hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia,
sulfur dioxide, chlorine gas
-Which are produced in silage making?
-Which causes acid prodution on mucosa?
-Which is heavier than air?
-Which has a characterisitic smell?
-Which is produced in fertilisation of plants?

-Which are produced in silage making? - Nitrogen dioxide
-Which causes acid prodution on mucosa? - Hydrogen sulphide
-Which is heavier than air?
- Hydrogen sulphide
- Sulphur dioxide
- Chlorine
-Which has a characterisitic smell?
- Hydrogen sulphide (rotten egg)
- Nitrogen dioxide (bleach-like)
- Ammonia (sharp)
- Sulphur dioxide (sharp)
- Chlorine (bleach like)
-Which is produced in fertilisation of plants?
- Hydrogen sulphide
- Sulfur dioxide

18

Underline 5 that are likely to cause convulsions
- OP, Carbamates
- Nitrophenols, Chlorophenols
- Metaldehyde
- NItrates, nitrites
- Ethylene glycol
- Zinc phosphide
- Hydrogen sulfide
- Crimidine
- Corrosives and irritants

?

19

What effect dose bee/wasp venom have on horse?

- Local: pain, swollen/edematous/erythematous plaques; orofacial area swelling, dyspnoe
- Systemic (multiple stings): numerous urticarial weals, excitement/frenzym tachycardia, diarrhea,
hemoglobinuria, icterus, prostration

20

What is stored in horn?

- Fluoride, copper, lead etc

21

When are emetics contraindicated? Acids and alkalis and in which animal (horse wasn’t an option)

- Rodents

22

What is glycoside?

- Digitalis
- Convalaria majalis
- Nerium oleander

23

Buckwheat poisoning effects

- Diarrhea, CNS stimulation (excitement, hypermotility), generalized convulsions, paralysis, increased body temperature

24

What can accumulate in bones?

- Lead, copper etc

25

If the LD50 of a rat is 20 mg/kg, is it toxic, highly toxic, mod toxic etc?

- Highly toxic 5 - 50, moderately toxic 50 - 300

26

Endosulphan accumulates in tissues?

- Accumulate in fat

27

The LD50 of a substance is 1.9 mg/kg and after 90 days it is 1.6 mg/kg, what can you say about it’s accumulation and excretion?

RELATIVELY NONCUMULATIVE
(> 2 - relative cumulative
< 2 - relative noncumulative)

28

What can be said about the accumulation properties of a substance if acute LD50 value is 1.6 MG/KG, and 90 day continuous LD50 value is 1.2 MG/KG?

RELATIVELY NONCUMULATIVE
(> 2 - relative cumulative
< 2 - relative noncumulative)