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Flashcards in Past qs May 2019 Deck (43)
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1

Active substance larkspur

Delfinine

2

Clinical features characteristics to chlorine gas toxicosis

neither
- behavioral signs
- anaemia

3

Which mechanism of effect is true for NSAIDs?

Both
- They can cause duodenal ulcers
- They cause vasoconstriction and damage of the kidneys

4

Which mechanism of action is characteristic to nitrate-nitrite?

Both
- Nitrate irritates mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract
- Methaemoglobin is not capably of oxygen transport

5

Clinical signs caused by poisonous lizards

(poisoning rare in animals)
o Local: multiple puncture marks, edema, intense localized pain
o Systemic: little/Ø neural effect, hypotension, tackycardia, dyspnoea, hypovolaemic shock

6

Mechanism of action characteristic to toxins in snake venom

Venom contains:
• Beta-neurotoxin (elapid/crotalid/viperid - blocks nerve impulse transmission presynaptic -> paralysis)
• Alpha-neurotoxin (bind nicotinic Ach-receptors at postsyn. -> paralysis)
• Cardiotoxin (act w. Phospholipase A2, lytic effect on RBC, complex effect: block neuromuscular conduction+axonal conduction, membrane depolarization, anti-Ach action, cytotoxic action, hemolysis, skeletal/SM contraction, cardiac arrest)
• Complement activating protein: helps absorption of toxins
• Platelet-active substance (crotalid/viperid > elapid)
• Blood-clotting factors (crotalid > viperid)
• Cytotoxic action (crotalid): haemorrhagic toxins, myotoxins, necrosis
• Nephrotoxins (viperid, crotalid)

7

LD50 20mg/kg which category

highly toxic

8

Mechanism of action characteristic of nitrophenols

inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation

9

Clinical sign not characteristic in ethylene glycol toxicosis

hypercalcaemia

10

Toxic part of golden chain

all part, especially pod + seed

11

Pathological findings in chlorine gas toxicosis

pulmonary edema and irritation of mucous membrane

12

PAIR THE LETTER(S) OF TOXIC GASES WITH THE STATEMENTS ABOUT THEM (5 points; 0.5/correct answer; score deduction if more than 10 answers are written)
A.Sulphur dioxide
B.Carbon monoxide
C.Ammonium
D.Nitrogen dioxide
E.Hydrogen sulphide
F.Chlorine gas
-High amount is produced during silage: ?
-Colourless, strongly irritating gas with characteristic odour: ?
-It causes acid production on musoca because of moisture: ?
-It is produced during the decomposition of organic materials with high nitrogen content: ?
-Toxic gas with characteristic colour, that is heavier than air: ?

-High amount is produced during silage : D
-Colourless, strongly irritating gas with characteristic odour: E, A, C
-It causes acid production on musoca because of moisture: D
-It is produced during the decomposition of organic materials with high nitrogen content: D C
-Toxic gas with characteristic colour, that is heavier than air: F, D

13

WHICH IS THIS PLANT? (2points)
1. This plant damages the bone marrow. It contains also thiaminase and carcinogenic compound. Bleeding in different forms is typical symptom in case of poisoning.
2. This garden plant also contains alkaloids, glycosides and Ca-oxalate. Its bulb is very toxic. It can cause erythema in case of direct skin contact.

1. Bracken fern
2. Daffodil spp (poet’s daffodil, wild daffodil)

14

Which of the following mechanism of effect is characteristic to selenium?

D. Incorporated instead of sulphur in amino acids and proteins thus inhibiting sulfhydril-disulfide conversions

15

Main metabolite of zearalenone in cattle?

C. Alfa

16

Which mechanism of action is characteristic to paraquat?

A. Participates in NADPH-dependent redox processes

17

Which clinical signs are caused by Gloriosa lily spp.?

D. Both
- Numbness of lip, tongue, throat
- Haemorrhages, myelosis

18

Which statement is true?

D. The lipid soluble compounds...... excreted by bile, via the milk and ....... egg

19

Which compound accumulate in the fat tissue?

D. Organochlorines

20

Which medicine is useful in the treatment of poisoning by Secale?

C. Both
- Tannic acid solution
- Theophylline

21

What is a clinical characteristic to acute dithiocarbamate poisoning?

B. Both
- Disturbed movement, depression
- Atrophy of testicles, repr. disorders

22

When can hydrogen sulphide be formed? Which statement is true?

D. Both
- It is formed also in the rumen and the intestinal tract
- Rotting of proteins

23

NOT a clinical sign of ethylene glycol poisoning?

D. Diarrhoea

24

True statement (about LD50)

A. LD50 of a xenobiotic can be different in ....... of different administration routes

25

Which ant species bite causes more severe symptoms?

A. Solenopsis spp.

26

Which antidote is useful in mercury poisoning?

A. Succimer

27

Which statement is true for non steroidal antiinflammatory .....?

B. Neither
- They are primarily excreted in an unchanged form from the body
- Cause serious CNS ...

28

Which insecticide shows the following clinical signs: dyspnoe, miosis, tremors, convulsions?

B. Diazinon

29

Which of the following is an organophosphate substance?

C. Fenthion

30

Which animal species is highly sensitive to diazinon?

C. Cat

31

Which plant affects primarily blood coagulation?

A. Sweet clover spp.

32

What is the most toxic part of Flamingo flower?

C. Leaf

33

Which antidote can be used in lead toxicosis?

A. Ca-Na-EDTA

34

Which antidote helps in detoxification of a poison?

A Sodium thiosulphate

35

Which statement is true for anticoagulant rodenticides?

B. They damage the ..... directly

36

Which medicine is useful in the treatment of nitrate-nitrite poisoning?

A. Both
- Methylene blue
- Vasoconstrictor agents

37

Which statement is true to nitrate-nitrite?

B. Both
- Water is the major source of poisoning
- Nitrite dilates the blood vessels

38

PLEASE COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES (4 points)
-Lead is frequently accumulated in the ...?...(organ), which will be very pronounced in case of ...?... (ion) insufficiency. -In case of lead toxicosis ...?... synthesis is disturbed, thus in many species the aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level is ...?..., except the dogs, in which ALA level is not diagnostically important in urine as it does not change.

-Lead is frequently accumulated in the ...BONE...(organ), which will be very pronounced in case of ...Mg-Fe (ion) insufficiency.
-In case of lead toxicosis ...HEME... synthesis is disturbed, thus in many species the aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level is ...increased... , except the dogs, in which ALA level is not diagnostically important in urine as it does not change.

39

PLEASE COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES (5 points)
-The absorption of the fluoride is impared by the ...?... ion.
-The fluoride is transported in the bloodstream in the form of ...?... , it is excreted via the ...?... in the form of ...?...
-The fluoride is capable of cumulation in the body in the following tissues ...?...

-The absorption of the fluoride is impared by the ...Ca2+... ion.
-The fluoride is transported in the bloodstream in the form of ...CaF2... , it is excreted via the ...kidneys... in the form of ...Ca2+?? .
-The fluoride is capable of cumulation in the body in the following tissues ... Bone, teeth (hair and soft tissue)...

40

MATCH THE PLANTS WITH THE TOXINS (6points)
1. Deadly nightshade G. aconitine
2. Bitter almond H. atropine
3. Claviceps purpurea I. colchicine
4. Lily of the valley J. ergot alkaloids
5. Monkshood K. cyanogenic glycoside
6. Autumn crocus L. convallarin

1. Deadly nightshade - H. atropine
2. Bitter almond - K. cyanogenic glycoside
3. Claviceps purpurea - J. ergot alkaloids
4. Lily of the valley - L. convallarin
5. Monkshood - G. aconitine
6. Autumn crocus - I. colchicine

41

LINE UP MYCOTOXINS IN INCREASED ORDER OF TOXICITY. START WITH THE LEAST TOXIC. (2 points. only perfect answer is acceptable

Order: ZEARALENONE - VERRUCULOGENE - T2 TOXIN - AFLATOXIN

42

PLEASE FILL THE TABLE WITH THE MISSING PARTS. ADMINISTRATION ROUTES SHOULD NOT BE WRITTEN (10 points)
POISONING - ANTIDOTE - DOSE
1. Diazinon
2. Copper
3. Difenacoum
4. Iron
5. Paracetamol
6. Nitrite

1. Diazinon - Atropine sulphate - 0.2-1 mg/kg
2. Copper - D-penicillamine - 20 - 50 mg/kg
3. Difenacoum - Vit. K - SA:1-5mg/kg (1%), LA: 0.5-1 mg/kg
4. Iron - Deferoxamine - 20mg/kg
5. Paracetamol - Acetylcysteine - 140 mg/kg, then 70mg/kg
6. Nitrite - Methylene Blue - 5-10 mg/kg (1%)

43

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES (1 POINT/RIGHT ANSWER)
-In aspirin poisoning, urinary pH has to be ...?... to enhance elimination, and for this purpose we can apply ...?...
- In muscarine poisoning, urinary pH has to be ...?... to enhance elimination, and for this purpose we can apply ...?...
- In theobromine poisoning, urinary pH has to be ...?... to enhance elimination, and for this purpose we can apply ...?...

-In aspirin poisoning, urinary pH has to be ...alkalised... to enhance elimination, and for this purpose we can apply ...NaHCO3...
- In muscarine poisoning, urinary pH has to be ...acidified... to enhance elimination, and for this purpose we can apply ...Vit C...
- In theobromine poisoning, urinary pH has to be ...acidified... to enhance elimination, and for this purpose we can apply ...Vit C...