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Clinical Anatomy - Trunk/Thorax > Pathologies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathologies Deck (14)
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1

Bulging disc

nucleus pulposus bulges into anulus fibrosus
most frequently posterolaterally
can impinge on nerve root
disc degeneration > prolapse > extrusion > sequestration

2

Laminectomy

surgical excision of lamina of vertebra
usually because of too much pressure on nerve root
unilateral or bilateral
*bone instead of disc issue

3

Compression fracture

body of vertebrae gets crushed

4

Spina bifida occulta

pars and arch don't fully develop
typically asymptomatic (possible tuft of hair on back)
fairly common

5

Spina bifida cystica

sever
pars and arch don't fully develop
herniation of meninges, spinal cord, and nerve root

6

C-spine injuries

commonly from high speed MVA
open mouth x-ray of anterior view of dens for fx or tear of transverse ligament

7

Spinal stenosis

"narrowing"
transverse foramen (vertebral artery insufficiency)
intervertebral foramen (can be bi or unilateral)
central foramen (global problems)

8

Vertebral artery insufficiency

reduced blood flow to brain (either small intervertebral foramen or arteriosclerosis)

9

Spondylosis

breakdown of bone similar to arthritis

10

Spondylolysis

fracture in pars or arch
scotty dog x-ray

11

Spondylolithesis

fracture in pars or arch with vertebral displacement

12

SCI

spinal cord injury
trauma to vertebral body can cause SCI

13

Thoracic outlet compression syndrome

impingement of nerves and arteries to lower neck and upper limb
sometimes area must be surgically expanded though sometimes stretching can fix

14

Most common disc injury sites

L4-L5 and L5-S1
C4-C5 and C5-C6