Flashcards in Pathology 1 Deck (100)
What is the difference between aetiology and epidemiology?
Epidemiology = How common? What sort of people get it? How does it spread?
Aetiology = Basic causes eg. microorganisms, molecular defects
What is meant by the prefix ANA?
What is meant by the prefix DYS?
What is meant by the prefix HYPER?
Excess over normal
What is meant by the prefix HYPO?
Deficiency below normal
What is meant by the prefix META?
Change from one state to another
What is meant by the suffix -ITIS?
What is meant by the suffix -OMA?
What is meant by the suffix -OSIS?
State or condition
What is meant by the suffix -OID?
Bearing a resemblance to
What is meant by the suffix -PENIA?
What is meant by the suffix -CYTOSIS?
Increase number of cells
What is meant by the suffix -ECTASIS?
What is meant by the suffix -PLASIA?
Disorder of growth
What is meant by the suffix -OPATHY?
Abnormal state lacking specific characteristics
What did Virchow say about cell injury and disease?
Injury to the smallest unit in the body, the cell, is the basis of all disease
What are the 4 things needed to maintain a steady state in a cell?
1) Preservation of genetic integrity
2) Normal enzyme content
3) Intact membranes and transmembrane proteins
4) Adequate supply of substrates and oxygen
What is the definition of cell injury?
Biochemical and/or morphological changes which occur when the steady state of a cell is perturbed by adverse influences
What is one of the ways that a cell copes with stress and how can this lead to cell injury?
If cell has an inability to adapt to this stress then cell becomes injured
Once a cell becomes injured one of 2 things can happen, what are they?
1) If the injury is mild then the cell can recover and the injury is reversible
2) If the injury is severe/progressive then the cell becomes irreversibly injured and dies - either by apoptosis or necrosis
What is the difference between hyperplasia and hypertrophy?
Hypertrophy - No increase in number but cells themselves actually get bigger leading to tissue getting bigger
Hyperplasia - an increase in the number of cells
What are the 3 ways in which a cell can adapt to stress?
1) Increased cellular activity - hypertrophy/hyperplasia
2) Decreased cellular activity - atrophy
3) Change in cell morphology
Give an example of how a cell of the adrenal gland adapts to the stress of changes in the pituitary axis with the use of exogenous steroids?
Decrease in cell activity - adrenal gland atrophies
Give an example of how myocytes adapt to cope with increased systemic resistance?
Hypertophy of the myocytes - bigger heart muscle to pump harder and overcome resistance
What are the 5 main types of cell injury?
1) Lack of oxygen availability - ischaemia
2) Physical trauma - includes thermal and mechanical
3) Chemical agents - acid/alkali balance altered/drugs
4) Infectious organisms
Other than the 5 main types of cell injury what are the 4 other common types?
2) Lack of essential vitamins/nutrients
3) Genetic disorders
4) Ageing - being old leads to inefficiency in some cell processes
What is the difference between hypoxia and anoxia?
Hypoxia - insufficient oxygen
Anoxia - absence of oxygen
What is ischaemia?
Lack of blood flow (ie. ischaemia often causes hypoxia/anoxia)
What is infarction?
Cell death due to lack of oxygen