Flashcards in Pathology Deck (20):
Describe & name cause of "Winged Scapula"
Scapula protrudes more than normal (looking like a wing) when the person pushes against something.
Occurs when Serratus Anterior (the long thoracic nerve) is damaged.
The scapula is no longer properly anchored to the rib cage.
Results in inability to lift the arm properly.
Describe & name the cause of "Popeye" sign
The biceps is much more prominent when the person flexes.
The biceps tendon is ruptured.
Person has trouble supinating forearm & flexion.
Describe & name the cause of subluxation & dislocation of radial head.
Head of radius is put out of joint.
Can occur as a result of sudden stress to the area, e.g. a child being swung by their arms.
Describe & name the cause of a Colle's fracture/"dinner fork fracture."
Fracture of the distal end of radius, sometimes with an avulsed styloid process of ulna.
Wrist looks like a dinner fork.
Can occur when landing badly on wrist (lateral?)
Describe a Monteggia's fracture
Fracture of ulna, just distal to the olecranon process, followed by dislocation of head of radius.
Describe a Galeazzi's fracture
Fracture of distal end of radius, followed by dislocation of ulna.
E.g. falling on wrist.
What is the most commonly fractured carpal bone?
Describe & name possible causes of "Tennis elbow"
Pain & tenderness over lateral side of elbow joint. Trouble with pronation & flexion.
Can be tears in tendon, or inflammation in bursa.
Caused by overuse or excessive stress of the elbow joint.
Describe & name causes of a triphalangeal thumb
There are 3 phalanges in the thumb, rather than 2.
Makes the thumb longer, makes opposition & lots of other movements difficult.
Sometimes hereditary, sometimes a random mutation.
Surgery needed to correct.
What is paralysis?
Inability to move a certain limb(s)
Caused by nerve damage.
What is anaesthesia?
Inability to feel a certain limb(s).
Caused by nerve damage.
Describe & name possible causes of "Waiter's tip position"
The arm hangs by the side in medial rotation.
Caused by injury to parts of the brachial plexus.
E.g. caused by a fall that widely separates the neck & shoulder, or when an infant's head is pulled excessively during delivery (stretching/rupturing/avulsing the plexus)
Describe & name possible causes of a "claw hand"
Caused by injury to the brachial plexus.
Caused by sudden pulling of the arm superiorly e.g. an infant's arm during delivery.
The short muscles of the hand are affected; difficulty in extending fingers...
Describe & name possible causes of Syndactyly
Fusion of fingers or toes.
- skin only
- skin & soft tissue
- soft tissue & bone
Sometimes the apoptosis of cells between the fingers doesn't happen.
Describe cleft hand/lobster claw deformities.
There is an absence of the central fingers, & the other fingers are fused so there are only 2 with a big gap in the middle.
Describe & name possible causes of Polydactyly
Too many fingers on 1 or both hands.
The extra fingers are usually underdeveloped/useless, laterally positioned. Surgery sometimes needed.
Is inherited dominant trait.
Describe & name possible causes of Meromelia & Amelia
Absence of part or whole of limb(s).
Critical period for limb development 24-36 days after fertilisation.
Potentially caused by drugs: thalidomide (antiemetic)
Potentially caused by loss of blood supply to the limb, or defect in innervation.
Describe & name possible causes of Achondroplasia
Bone ossification is disturbed at epiphyseal plate.
Limbs are bowed & short, trunk is long, head is large with bulging forehead.
Autosomal dominant disorder, or new mutation.
Describe & name possible causes of Congenital Clubfoot/Talipes
Abnormal position of foot preventing weight bearing.
1 ligament becomes shorter & pulls the foot in.
Multifactorial: inheritance, environmental factors, abnormal intrauterine position.
Can be treated by gently stretching the ligaments.