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Musculoskeletal (MEDI) 203 > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (20):

Describe & name cause of "Winged Scapula"

Scapula protrudes more than normal (looking like a wing) when the person pushes against something.
Occurs when Serratus Anterior (the long thoracic nerve) is damaged.
The scapula is no longer properly anchored to the rib cage.
Results in inability to lift the arm properly.


Describe & name the cause of "Popeye" sign

The biceps is much more prominent when the person flexes.
The biceps tendon is ruptured.
Person has trouble supinating forearm & flexion.


Describe & name the cause of subluxation & dislocation of radial head.

Head of radius is put out of joint.
Can occur as a result of sudden stress to the area, e.g. a child being swung by their arms.


Describe & name the cause of a Colle's fracture/"dinner fork fracture."

Fracture of the distal end of radius, sometimes with an avulsed styloid process of ulna.
Wrist looks like a dinner fork.
Can occur when landing badly on wrist (lateral?)


Describe a Monteggia's fracture

Fracture of ulna, just distal to the olecranon process, followed by dislocation of head of radius.


Describe a Galeazzi's fracture

Fracture of distal end of radius, followed by dislocation of ulna.
E.g. falling on wrist.


What is the most commonly fractured carpal bone?



Describe & name possible causes of "Tennis elbow"

Lateral epicondylitis
Pain & tenderness over lateral side of elbow joint. Trouble with pronation & flexion.
Can be tears in tendon, or inflammation in bursa.
Caused by overuse or excessive stress of the elbow joint.


Describe & name causes of a triphalangeal thumb

There are 3 phalanges in the thumb, rather than 2.
Makes the thumb longer, makes opposition & lots of other movements difficult.
Congenital malformation.
Sometimes hereditary, sometimes a random mutation.
Surgery needed to correct.


What is paralysis?

Inability to move a certain limb(s)
Caused by nerve damage.


What is anaesthesia?

Inability to feel a certain limb(s).
Caused by nerve damage.


Describe & name possible causes of "Waiter's tip position"

The arm hangs by the side in medial rotation.
Caused by injury to parts of the brachial plexus.
E.g. caused by a fall that widely separates the neck & shoulder, or when an infant's head is pulled excessively during delivery (stretching/rupturing/avulsing the plexus)


Describe & name possible causes of a "claw hand"

Caused by injury to the brachial plexus.
Caused by sudden pulling of the arm superiorly e.g. an infant's arm during delivery.
The short muscles of the hand are affected; difficulty in extending fingers...


Describe & name possible causes of Syndactyly

Fusion of fingers or toes.
Can be:
- skin only
- skin & soft tissue
- soft tissue & bone
Sometimes the apoptosis of cells between the fingers doesn't happen.


Describe cleft hand/lobster claw deformities.

There is an absence of the central fingers, & the other fingers are fused so there are only 2 with a big gap in the middle.


Describe & name possible causes of Polydactyly

Too many fingers on 1 or both hands.
The extra fingers are usually underdeveloped/useless, laterally positioned. Surgery sometimes needed.
Is inherited dominant trait.


Describe & name possible causes of Meromelia & Amelia

Absence of part or whole of limb(s).
Critical period for limb development 24-36 days after fertilisation.
Potentially caused by drugs: thalidomide (antiemetic)
Potentially caused by loss of blood supply to the limb, or defect in innervation.


Describe & name possible causes of Achondroplasia

Bone ossification is disturbed at epiphyseal plate.
Limbs are bowed & short, trunk is long, head is large with bulging forehead.
Autosomal dominant disorder, or new mutation.


Describe & name possible causes of Congenital Clubfoot/Talipes

Abnormal position of foot preventing weight bearing.
1 ligament becomes shorter & pulls the foot in.
Multifactorial: inheritance, environmental factors, abnormal intrauterine position.
Can be treated by gently stretching the ligaments.


What is Ankylosing spondylitis?

A form of arthritis, in which there is calcification of soft tissues as well as bones (e.g. tendons/ligaments).
Occurs when there is a deficiency in substances regarding bone calcification.