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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (72):
1

Down synd assoc'd w/?

ALL, AML (We ALL fall DOWN)

2

Chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, post-op gastric remnants assoc'd w/?

Gastric adenoca

3

Tuberous sclerosis =
assoc'd w/?

= facial angiofibroma, seizures, retard
- giant cell astrocytoma, renal angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma

4

Actinic keratosis assoc'd w/?

SCC of skin

5

Plummer-Vinson synd assoc'd w/?

SCC of eso

6

Paget's dz of bone assoc'd w/?

2* osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma

7

Immunodef states assoc'd w/?

Malig lymphomas

8

AIDS assoc'd w/?

aggressive malig lymphomas (Non-Hodgkin's) and Kaposi's sarcoma

9

Autoimm dz's assoc'd w/?

Lymphoma

10

Acanthosis nigricans assoc'd w/?

visceral malig (stomach, lung, uterus)

11

Radiation exposure assoc'd w/?

Leukemia, sarcoma, papillary thyroid ca, breast ca

12

abl - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

TK, CML t(9;22)
Oncogene

13

c-myc - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

TF, Burkitt's lymphoma t(8;14)
Oncogene

14

bcl-2 - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

anti-apoptosis, follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas
Oncogene

15

HER2/neu (c-erbB2) - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

TK (R syn is amplified), br/ov/gastric ca's
Oncogene

16

ras - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

GTPase (pt mutation), colon ca
Oncogene

17

L-myc - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

TF, Lung tumor
Oncogene

18

N-myc - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

TF (amplified), Neuroblastoma
Oncogene

19

ret - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

TK (pt mutation), MEN 2A/B
Oncogene

20

c-kit - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

cytokine R, GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumor)
Oncogene

21

SIS - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

GF syn (overexp'n), osteogenic sarcoma and astrocytoma
Oncogene

22

Rb - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

Inhib's E2F so blocks G1->S, RetinoBlastoma and osteosarcoma
Tumor suppressor

23

p53 (TP53) - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

TF for p21 so blocks G1->S, most ca's and Li-Fraumeni synd (LABBS synd = leuk, ad, br/brain, sarcoma)
Tumor suppressor

24

BRCA1/2 - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

DNA repair pr's, br/ov ca
Tumor suppressor

25

p16 - assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

Melanoma
Tumor suppressor

26

BRAF - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

B-raf (PK in MAPK pthwy), melanoma
Tumor suppressor

27

APC - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

prevent nuc trxn bc degrades catenin (act's trxn), CRC (assoc'd w/ FAP)
Tumor suppressor

28

WT1 - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

reg's nuc trxn, Wilm's tumor (nephroblastoma)
Tumor suppressor

29

NF1 - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

RAS GTPase act'ing pr (RAS-GAP), NF1
Tumor suppressor

30

NF2 - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

Merlin (schwannomin) pr, NF2
Tumor suppressor

31

DPC4 - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

DPC (deleted in panc ca), panc ca
Tumor suppressor

32

DCC - gene prod? assoc'd w/?
Type of ca gene?

DCC (deleted in colon ca), colon ca
Tumor suppressor

33

PSA is a tumor marker for?
- also elevated in?

Prostate-sp Ag; prostate ca
- Elevated in BPH and prostitis

34

Prostatic acid phosphatase is a tumor marker for?

Prostate ca

35

CEA is a tumor marker for?
- Also made by?

CarcinoEmbryonic Ag; nonsp but made by ~70% of CRC and panc ca's
- Gastric, br and medullary thyroid ca's

36

aFP is a tumor marker for?

alpha-fetopr; usu made by fetus; hepatocellular ca and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (testis, ovary)

37

b-hCG is a tumor marker for?

Hydatidiform moles and Choriocarcinomas (placenta), (Gestational trophoblastic dz, aka related to preg)

38

CA-125 is a tumor marker for?

ov ca

39

S-100 is a tumor marker for?

Melanoma, neural tumors, schwannomas

40

Alk phosphatase is a tumor marker for?

Met's to bone, liver, Paget's dz of bone

41

Bombesin is a tumor marker for?

Neuroblastoma, lung and gastric ca

42

TRAP is a tumor marker for?

Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP); Hairy cell leukemia (B cell neoplasm)
"Trap the Hairy animal"

43

CA-19-9 is a tumor marker for?

Panc adenoca

44

Calcitonin is a tumor marker for?

Medullary thyroid ca

45

HTLV-1 is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Adult T-cell leuk/lymphoma
(act's TAX gene -> stim's T cell prolif; inhib's p53)

46

HCV is assoc'd w/ what ca?
HBV is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Hepatocellular ca (from postnecrotic cirrhosis)
Hepatocellular ca (act's protooncogenes, inact's p53)

47

EBV is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Burkitt's lymphoma [t(18,14)], Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal ca, CNS lymphoma (in immcomp'd pt's)

48

HPV is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Cervical ca (16 has E6 to inhib p53, 18 has E7 to inhib RB), penile/anal ca, upper resp SCC

49

HHV-8 is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Kaposi's sarcoma, body cavity fluid B-cell lymphoma
(acts via cytokines from HIV and HSV)

50

H. pylori is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Gastric adenoca and lymphoma

51

Schistosoma haematobium is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Bladder ca (SCC)

52

Liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis = Opisthorchis viverrini) is assoc'd w/ what ca?

Cholangioca of bile ducts

53

Alfltoxins (Aspergillus) affect what organ? cause what ca?

Liver, hepatocellular ca (in assoc'n w/ HBV)

54

Poly Vinyl chloride (PVC) affects what organ? cause what ca?

Liver, angiosarcoma

55

Carbon tetrachloride affects what organ? cause what?

Liver, centrilobular necrosis and fatty change

56

Nitrosamines (smoked foods) affect what organ? cause what ca?

Stomach, gastric ca

57

Cigarette smoke (polycyclic hydroC's) affects what organs? cause what ca's?

Larynx -> SCC, lung -> sq and sm cell ca, kidney -> renal cell ca, bladder -> transitional cell ca, panc -> panc adenoca

58

Asbestos affects what organ? cause what ca?

Lungs, bronchogenic ca > mesothelioma

59

Arsenic affects what organs? cause what ca's?

Skin -> SCC, liver -> angiosarcoma (lung ca too)

60

Naphthalene (aniline) dyes [in moth balls] affect what organ? cause what ca?

bladder -> transitional cell ca

61

Alkylating agents affect what organ? cause what ca?

bl, leukemia (malig lymphoma)

62

Benzene
Beryllium
Chromium
Cyclophosphamide
Diethylstilbestrol
Nickel
Silica
-> affect what organ? cause what ca?

- acute leuk
- bronchogenic ca
- bronchogenic ca
- transitional cell ca of bladder
- clear cell ca of vagina/cervix
- bronchogenic ca
- bronchogenic ca

63

Sm cell lung ca can cause what 3 paraneoplastic synds?

1) ACTH or ACTH-like peptide -> Cushing's synd
2) ADH -> SIADH
3) LES (Abs to presyn Ca ch's at NMJ)

64

PTHrP from which 3 ca's?
1,25-(OH)2 D3 (calcitriol) from which 2 ca's?
EPO from which 4 ca's?

- sq cell lung ca, RCC, br ca (hyperCa)
- Hodgkin's lymphoma and some non-Hodgkin's (hyperCa)
- RCC, hemangioblastoma, HCC, pheo (polycythemia)

65

Get hypoGlc from which ca?

HCC, secretes insulin-like factor

66

Psammoma bodies =
Seen in which 4 ca's?

laminated, concentric, calcific spherules
PSaMMoma:
- Papillary adenoca of thyroid
- Serous papillary cystadenoca of ov
- Meningioma
- Malig mesothelioma

67

Brain met's usu come from?

Lung > br > GU > osteosarcoma > melanoma > GI (usu at gray/white jxn)

68

Liver met's usu come from?

Colon >> stomach > panc

69

Bone met's usu come from?

Prostate (blastic), br (lytic and blastic) > lung (lytic) > thyroid, testes

70

Choristoma =

nl tissue where it should NOT be

71

Sequence of ca invastion?

Loss of intercellular adherence (los E-cadherin)
Cell invasion bc attaching to laminin (in bm) -> release type IV collagenase (contains Zn in NZ) -> attach to fibronectin in ECM -> produce cytokines and proteases (dissolve ct) -> produce factors that stim angiogenesis (VEGF and basic FGF)

72

Lynch synd =

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon ca, w/o previous polyps; inact'n of DNA mismatch repair genes