Pathology, Diuretics, & Anesthesia - Final Wrap Up Flashcards Preview

Summer 2020 - Physiology 2 - Renal > Pathology, Diuretics, & Anesthesia - Final Wrap Up > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology, Diuretics, & Anesthesia - Final Wrap Up Deck (66)
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1

What do Natriuretic Peptides do ?

Long-Term Sodium-Water, Blood Volume, and Arterial Pressure Regulation by Vasodilation and Renal Natriuresis & Diuresis. 

2

How do Natriuretic Peptides affect the CV System?

↑Venous Compliance

↓Preload & ↓CVP

↓CO

↓SVR

↓PCWP

3

How do Natriuretic Peptides affect the Kidneys?

↑GFR

Inhibits Renin Release

Inhibits Aldosterone Secretion

Inhibits ADH Secretion

↓Angiotensin II

 

4

What stimulates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide release?

Atrial Stretch or ↑ECF

5

Where in the Kidney does ANP act to Decrease Sodium Reabsorption?

Collecting Duct

6

Where is Brain Natriuretic Peptide synthesized?

Heart Ventricles

7

What happens w/ the Chronic use of Diuretics?

Decreased Effects

8

Where in the Kidneys do Loop Diuretics, like Bumex & Lasix work?

Thick Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle

9

Where in the Kidney do Thiazides work?

Distal Convoluted Tubule

10

Where do Potassium-Sparing Diuretics work?

Distal Tubule & Collecting Duct

11

Where in the Kidney does Mannitol & Diamox work?

Proximal Tubule

12

How do Osmotic Diuretics like Mannitol & Urea work?

Gets filtered & stuck in the Tubules and draws in fluid with them

13

How do Loop Diuretics like Lasix, Bumex, and Ethacrynic Acid work?

Inhibits the Na-2Cl-K pump in the TAL and stops the Countercurrent System

14

Thiazides are most commonly used & stops Sodium Reabsorption in the DCT. How do they affect Potassium Levels?

Can cause Hypokalemia & Alkalosis b/c increased Sodium in the DCT stimulates Aldosterone sodium pump to exchange Potassium & H+ for Sodium

15

How do Carbonic Anhydrase Inhbitors, like Diamox, work?

↓Na Reabsorption in PCT by decreasing the Bicarb Reabsorption that is coupled to the Sodium, which can cause Acidosis

16

What is the main use for Diamox?

Treats Glaucoma

17

How do Aldosterone Antagonist like Spironolactone work?

Spares Potassium via a decrease in Na Reabsorption & K+ Secretion  by competing for aldosterone binding sites in the DCT.

18

Which class of Diuretics are Amiloride & Triamterene?

Sodium Channel Blockers

19

How do Na Channel Blockers work?

Decrease Na Reabsorption by decreasing Na/K-ATPase in the Collecting Tubule, which also spares Potassium

20

What is the difference b/t Acute Kidney Injury vs. Chronic Kidney Disease?

AKI: Acute decline or complete loss of kidney function that eventually recovers back to normal

CKD: Irreversible decrease in Functional Nephrons

21

What are the leading causes of ESRD?

#1 - Diabetes

#2 - HTN

22

When would you start to see symptoms of CKD?

When there are < 70% of Functional Nephrons

23

How is Chronic Kidney Disease defined?

Kidney Damage or Decreased Kidney Function lasting 3 months or more

24

How much of a decrease in functioning nephrons would result in abnormal electrolytes & body fluid volumes?

A decrease below 20-25% of normal

25

What causes CKD?

Renal Vasculature Injury

Glomerulonephritis

Infection

Nephrotic Syndrome

26

What are some causes of Renal Vasculature Injury?

Atherosclerosis

Fibromuscular Dysplasia

Nephrosclerosis

27

What are some causes of Glomerulonephritis?

Antigen-Antibody Complexes

Strep Infection

Lupus

28

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

Loss of Negative Charge in Basement Membrane from Proteinuria

29

What is Pyelonephritis?

E. Coli Infection, affecting the Renal Medulla & Impairs Ability to concentrate Urine

30

What are the effects of Uremia?

Edema

Anemia

Acidosis

↑Nitrogenous Waste

↑K, Phosphates & Phenol

↑CO for more O2 Carrying Capacity