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Flashcards in Pathology Exam 2 Material Deck (110)
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1

What is the brown pigment present in this fresh intestine from a dog?

Lipofuscin

2

T/F: Fibrin is typically associated with chronic processes

False!

You don't see fibrin in chronic processes because by then it should already by phagocytosed. You will however see fibrous tissue

3

Acute inflammatory processes are partially characterized by the emigration of white blood cells to the sites of inflammation. Which type of cells make up most of these WBCs?

Neutrophils

4

Would this image be more accurately described as acute or chronic?

Chronic

Note the presence of fibrous tissue

5

Name the cytokines induced when PAMPs and TLRs bind:

IL-1, TNF-a, and Interferon (IFN)

*has been a test question*

6

Name the toll-like receptor (TLR) associated with LPS (Gram-negative):

TLR4

7

Name the toll-like receptor (TLR) associated with lipotheicoic acids (Gram-positive):

TLR4

8

Name the toll-like receptor (TLR) associated with lipoarabinomannon (Mycobacteria):

TLR2 and TLR4

9

When neutrophils cannot engulf a particle due to size, it will spew out contents in an attempt to neutralize it, then it is eaten by macrophages.

What is this process known as?

Frustrated phagocytosis

10

What is the 'main cell' in the acute inflammatory response?

Neutrophils

11

Inflammatory sites rich in neutrophils are referred to as _________ and __________

Inflammatory sites rich in neutrophils are referred to as suppurative and purulent

12

Avian species do not have neutrophils. Instead, they have:

heterophils

13

Which cell type do you expect to be more abundant in inflammatory diseases of immunologic, parasitic, or allergic origin?

Eosinophils!

14

Name the 7 major chemoattractants associated with eosinophils:

  1. Histamine
  2. c5a
  3. CCL-5
  4. CCL-11
  5. IL-4
  6. IL-5
  7. IL-13

15

Name the etiology associated with the image.

The EDx?

Etiology: Habronema spp.

EDx: Habronemal dermatitis/coronitis

16

EDx?

Habronemal balanoposthitis

(balanoposthitis is inflammation of the foreskin and head of the penis)

17

T/F: lymphocytes and plasma cells are commonly seen in innate immune responses

False

lymphocytes and plasma cells are commonly seen in adaptive immune responses

18

Name the tachykinin responsible for inducing degranulation of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils and release of their histamine

Substance P

19

Which complement product functions in opsonization?

C3b

20

Histamine is present in tissues, basophils, and platelets, but primarily in ____________

mast cells

21

Which cytokines play the biggest role in hematopoiesis?

IL-3, G-CSF

22

TNF and IL-1, the two major cytokines in acute inflammation, are produced primarily by:

activated macrophages

23

What is the primary cytokine associated with fever?

IL-1

24

The pathologic state characterized by weight loss and anorexia that accompanies some CHRONIC infections and neoplastic diseases is known as:

Cachexia

25

T/F: Chemokines are produced by all nucleated cells

True

26

If you see fibrin, you automatically know that the process is __________

(acute or chronic)

acute

27

Inflammation of the lymph nodes is known as:

lymphadenitis

28

Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels is known as:

lymphangitis

29

LPS from gram negative bacteria can stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators.

The receptor that recognizes LPS is:

TLR-4

TLR-4 is a pattern recognition receptor that recognize PAMPs such as LPS, lipotechoic acid, and lipoarabinominnon.

30

T/F: Fibrosis is a sign of acute inflammation.

False.

Fibrin deposition may be seen in acute inflammation. Fibrosis is an indication of chronic inflammation