Pathology Lab Cellular Rxns PDF Flashcards Preview

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Chronic intubation can lead to ______ of tracheal tissue.

change from columnar-->squamous


Describe the "downsizing" cell response when there is injury.

This happens when skeletal muscle is injured. The cell number is the same, but the size of the cell is reduced. This is atrophy of the skeletal muscle fibers. Here: innervation to small fibers is lost. Note: this can happen with different types of tissue.


What does Alzheimer's disease do to the brain?

it causes cerebral atrophy
gyri are narrowed & intervening sulci are widened


What is it indicative of if you see yellow-brown pigment in the liver?

this might be seen in hypoxic areas, like next to the central vein.
this pigment is lipochrome that has accumulated
the atrophic & dying cells are undergoing autophagy


If a patient has systemic HTN, what might happen to their heart?

perhaps cardiac hypertrophy, particularly the LV
the # of muscle fibers does NOT increase, but their size increases.


Is hyperplasia of the endometrium always pathological?

Not necessarily. Could be physiologic w/ the menstrual cycle.
Hyperplasia happens to increase endometrial glands & stroma.


What might you see with prostatic hyperplasia?

a prostate greater than 3-4 cm in diameter.
more prostate glands, more stroma, more nodular than uniform


What might happen to a smoker's larynx epithelium? What is this the first step towards?

it may undergo metaplasia from respiratory epithelium to squamous.
first step towards neoplasia


What might dysplasia of the cervix look like? What is the significance of this?

squamous epithelium becomes disorderly & dysplastic
this is more serious than metaplasia, on the road toward neoplasia, but still reversible.


Describe the appearance of neoplasia in a patient w/ squamous cell carcinoma.

neoplastic cells in nests w/ pink cytoplasmic keratin.


Which is more dangerous: neoplasms that are more or less differentiated?

less differentiated=more dangerous


On a histo slide, what do the cells look like that are undergoing apoptosis?

pink from the loss of cytoplasm
without nuclei
fragmented b/c of caspases


If you saw apoptosis in a fetal thymus, would that be good or bad? What would it look like?

is normal, physiologic
involution of thymic lymphocytes via apoptosis
cells fragment & are consumed by phagocytes
therefore, you see some clear spaces


Apoptosis is encouraged when _____ is turned on & _____ is turned off.

Bax is turned on
BCL2 is turned off


If a coronary artery was blocked...what would the damaged heart tissue look like? What type of tissue death would this be?

Coagulative/Ischemic Necrosis
nuclei pyknotic (shrunken & dark) & karorrhexis (fragmented) & karyolysis (dissolved)
cell borders no longer recognizable
**can't tell-->this is heart muscle!


When do definable patterns of necrosis occur, such as a wedge shape?

when many cells undergo necrosis at once b/c of ischemia or infarction


So... I'm in the kidney & I see 3 zones. One zone has normal renal parenchyma. The next zone over is redder. The furthest zone has cells that are pale & ghost-like. What am I observing?

Coagulative Necrosis
**normal renal parenchyma--> hemorrhagic zone-->necrotic tissue (b/c of anoxia)


What would you think if you saw a wedge-shaped pale area of the adrenal cortex with a thin border of normal tissue near the top?

Infarction from loss of blood supply
Coagulative necrosis seen in the pale area
capsular arterial branches keep the top border from becoming ischemic.


T/F The small bowel is somewhat difficult to infarct.

True. b/c of the anastomotic connections. **could happen if you got the bowel caught in a hernia & cut off its mesenteric blood supply


What would the small bowel look like if it was infarcted?

dark red-->grey instead of pale pink


What might liquefactive necrosis of the lung look like?

abscesses in the lobes w/ liquid in the middle


What are some things that make liquefactive necrosis more likely?

basically, you see it w/ infection
typical of tissues w/ lots of lipids
or when there is an abscess w/ lots of acute inflammatory cells (like neutrophils)


When would you see liquefactive necrosis in the brain? What would it look like?

during a stroke (loss of blood supply to the cerebrum)
you would see loss of neurons & neuroglial cells
formation of clear space


What cell type might you see cleaning up an area of liquefactive necrosis?

macrophages--the janitors


When does coagulative/ischemic v. liquefactive necrosis happen?

Coagulative/Ischemic: happens with reduced blood supply
Liquefactive Necrosis: infection


Which cell type predominates in acute inflammation? Chronic inflammation?



If you see a pancreas with an area of chalky, soft, white areas...what might explain this? What is this?

Fat necrosis
b/c of damage to pancreatic acini & release of powerful enzymes


What do necrotic fat cells look like on a microscopic level?

vague cellular outlines
loss of peripheral nuclei
pink, amorphous cytoplasm


What would a messed up hilar lymph node of a lung w/ TB look like? What type of inflammation is associated w/ this situation?

Caseous necrosis--looks cheesy (tan-->white)
combo of liquefactive & coagulative necrosis
**Granulomatous inflammation associated w/ this.
Note: can form cystic spaces too!


What does caseous necrosis look like microscopically?

acellular pink areas of necrosis
surrounded by granulomatous inflammation