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Flashcards in Pathology of Hypertension Deck (33)
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What can hypertension lead to?

-atherosclerotic CV disease
-heart failure
-renal failure
-multi-infarct dementia


What are the systolic and diastolic cutoffs for increased risk of ACD?

140 mm Hg and
90 mm Hg

lower with someone with diabetes and AA patients


What causes hypertension?

-idiopathic (essential HTN) 90+%
- secondary causes such as renal disease, renal artery narrowing, adrenal disorders


What are some rare single gene disorders that can lead to HTN?

-Aldosterone metabolism- leads to increased aldosterone, increased salt and water, and plasma expansion

- Sodium resorption


Why would renal artery narrowing lead to HTN?

When the kidney thinks that there isn't enough blood in the body (because it's not getting any) it will increase BP


What is the equation for cardiac output?

CO= HR (heart rate) x SV (stroke volume)


Endothelial injury leads to what?

- smooth muscle growth
- matrix synthesis

both lead to lumenal decrease


What is arteriosclerosis?

hardening of the arteries


What happens in atherosclerosis?

LDL lipoproteins enter the intima following endothelial injury and they are taken up by macrophages leading to foam cells. Eventually the proteins and macrophages die, leaving a necrotic lipid dense core plaque with a fibrous cap over the top

atherosclerosis= lipid deposit


What happens if the fibrous cap gets too thin?

the plaque can rupture and thrombi can form


What is medical calcific sclerosis (Monckenbergs)?

incidental calcification in the media


What is Arteriolosclerosis?

thickened walls in arterioles that is associated with hypertension and diabetes


What are the types of arteriolosclerosis?

hyaline arteriolosclerosis and hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis


What is hyaline arteriolosclerosis caused by?

increased pressure due to hypertension pushes the plasma proteins into vessel walls leading to increased ECM construction and the intima expands


What is hyaline arteriolosclerosis associated with?

benign hypertension


What can hyaline arteriolosclerosis lead to?

nephrosclerosis- eventually the kidney doesn't have the proteins needed to function


What is hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis associated with?

more severe hypertension (systolic over 200 mm Hg) that leads to an onion skinning appearance of the vessel caused by smooth muscle proliferation

Very high HTN can lead to fibrinoid deposits and vessel wall necrosis

NOT much inflammation here (distinguish from vasculitis)


What is a complicated lesion?

when the fibrous cap of a plaque wears down, the lipid dense core can form a thrombus/embolus


What causes aneurysm?

eventually the plaque will weaken the intima and media


What are the constitutional risks of plaque formation?

- genetics
- age (silent until 40-60)
- gender- premenopausal women protective effect (estrogen?- possible)


What are the acquried risks of plaque formation?

-inflammation (increased CRP)


Describe atherosclerosis.

- Chronic endothelial injury
- Accumulation of lipoproteins that diapedes into the intima
- Inflammatory response of monocytes come into the intima and eat the LDL to try to remove it
- Cytokines promote smooth muscle growth
- Macrophages eventually die leaving necrotic center
- Fibrous cap forms over lipid dense core
- Continued growth and remodeling


What is an unstable plaque?

Occurs when 70-80% of lumen (critical stenosis) is obstructed and become more clinically evident and prone to rupture and embolus OR aneurysm


What are common vessels affected by atherosclerosis?

- **infrarenal abdominal aorta** (very turbulent)
- Coronary arteries
- Popliteal arteries
- Internal carotid arteries
- Circle of willis


Where is the vaso vasorum common?

aortic arch since it is so thick so it provides blood to the media and adventitia


What causes thrombus formation following plaque formation?

breaking open of the fibrous cap causes hemorrhage which clots and forms a thrombus


T or F. True aneurysms involve all three layers of the vessel wall



What is a dissection?

a tare in the intima due to problems with the media (usually vaso vasorum is messed up and cant get blood to the media) and its integrity is compromised or someone with collagen issues- ehlers dances, etc.)


What causes aneurysm?

atherolsclerosis is a disease of the intima, however, in advance disease, the plaque compresses and thins the media, weakening the wall, causing a loss of elasticity leading to aneurysm


What is the most common cause of an aneurysm of the ascending aorta?



What is the most common cause of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta?



T or F. A patient with Ehlers- Danlos or Morfan's syndrome is act high risk of aneurysm

T. No elasticity in media


What can cause thoracic aneurysm?

Syphillis- plasma cells surround and inflame the vast vasorum, weakening the media