Vascular Disease Basics Flashcards Preview

Cardio Week 1 > Vascular Disease Basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vascular Disease Basics Deck (35):
1

What are advanced glycation end products (AGEs) ?

Process when glycated products are produced when an oxidative step is involved (ROS accelerates process) leading to glycated proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids (e.g. hemoglobin A1c)

2

What do AGEs do?

- can induce cross linking of collagen which can cause vascular stiffening and entrapment of low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL) in artery walls

- can glycate LDL which promotes its oxidation

- can bind to RAGE and cause oxidative stress as well as activation of inflammatory pathways in vascular endothelial cells

3

How will someone with a ruptured Berry aneurysm present?

with pounding headache

4

Where are Berry aneurysms common?

at branch points because there is more turbulence

5

What layer of the vessel is thought to be the cause of a Berry aneurysm?

the media

6

What are the two forms of aneurysm?

Saccular and Fusiform

7

What are AV fistulas?

abnormal connections of artery and vein without capillary bed

8

Fibromuscular dysplasia is common in what population?

younger women

9

What vessel layer is thought to be the source of fibromuscular dysplasia?

media (75%)

10

What happens in fibromuscular dysplasia?

a 'string of beads' look caused by alternating thickening of the media affecting the distal 2/3 of the main renal artery

can lead to HTN (however, it is noninflammatory and nonathersclerotic)

11

What are some cell wall markers?

CD31, CD34, D2-40

12

What is an ectasia?

a generic term for local dilatation of a structure

13

What is a telangiectasia?

permanent dilatation of preexisting small vessels (usually in skin or mucous membranes)

14

What are some types of vascular estasias?

- nevus flammeus
- spider telangectasias
- Hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia

can be congenital or acquired- not a true neoplasm

15

Describe nevus flammeus.

They are usually large flat patches of purple/red skin with well-defined borders. At birth the surface is flat but in time it becomes bumpy and often more unsightly

16

T or F. Nevus flammeus shrink by themselves and often disappear

F.

17

Describe salmon patches.

common lesions that appear often at the nape of the neck (stork bite) or forehead between the eyebrows (aka angel's kiss) that become more common when crying and often spontaneously disappear within the first year of life

18

What is Sturge Weber syndrome?

port wine ectasia that distributes along the trigeminal nerve

19

Why would imaging be appropriate with Sturge Weber syndrome?

because they often develop venous angiomas in the cortical leptomeninges

20

What is Sturge Webber syndrome associated with physically?

-mental retardation
-seizures
-hemiplegia

21

What is the most common symptom of Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia?

recurring nose bleeds

22

Describe hemangiomas.

-very common
-composed of blood filled vessels
- benign and malignant transformation is rare

23

What are some types of hemangiomas (benign)?

-Capillary hemangioma
-Juvenile hemangioma
-Pyogenic granulomas
-Cavernous hemangioma

24

Where are capillary hemangiomas common?

-skin and subq
-mucus membranes
-liver, spleen and kidney

25

What are juvenile hemangiomas?

a form of capillary hemangioma that usually presents in newborns and grow rapidly for a few months then fade by 1-3 yrs. Gone by 7 y/o completely

26

Describe the histology of Juvenile hemangiomas.

- mitotic figures may be present
- mast cells are present

27

What are pyogenic granulomas?

capillary hemangiomas that grow rapidly in areas of trauma (often on skin, gingiva, oral mucosa) that typically bleed and ulcerate easily

28

When are pyogenic granulomas particularly common?

pregnancy

29

What hemangioma is associated with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome?

cavernous granulomas

30

Cavernous lymphangiomas are associated with what?

Turner syndrome

31

What are glomus tumors?

Benign, painful tumors commonly found under the nail bed that are proliferations of specialized smooth muscle cells of glomus body (thermoregulation)

32

What does Kaposi sarcoma result in?

disruption of normal cell division (prevents apoptosis)

33

What are the stages of Kaposi sarcoma?

- patches- pink, red or purple typically on distal leg

- plaque- larger, raised

- nodular- more overtly neoplastic

34

What things can cause angiosarcomas in the liver?

-arsenical pesticides
-Thorotrast (radioactive contrast agent)
-Polyvinyl chloride

long latency period

35

What things can cause angiosarcomas in lymphedema?

radiation- common in upper extremity after a radical mastectomy