Flashcards in Pathology of Liver and Pancreas Deck (28):
What are the three zones of a normal liver lobule?
Periportal, Midzonal, Centrilobular
What is a portosystemic shunt?
Congenital or acquired disease where portal blood bypasses the liver
What is the difference between a congenital and acquired portosystemic shunt?
Congenital - shunt into vena cava, azygos or renal vein
Acquired - shunts secondary to fibrosis with multiple thin-walled shunts
What is right sided heart failure normally associated with in the liver?
Passive venous congestion
Describe the gross and microscopic appearance of passive venous congestion
Gross - enlarged liver, oozes blood when cut, enhanced lobulation (nutmeg liver)
Microscopic - engorged sinusoids and hepatic venules, atrophy of hepatocytes
Name four disorders of pigmentation in the liver
What is Vacuolar Hepatopathies?
A degenerative disease where hydropic change happens in hepatocytes - may be caused by Cushings
What can cause lipidosis (fatty liver)?
Dietry factors, increased energy demand, disease (diabetes mellitus), abnormal hepatocyte function
What is lysosomal storage disease?
Deficiencies of lysosomal enzymes - causes macrophages with stored material to accumulate in liver, lymph, CNS etc
In amyloidosis, what stain can be used to show there is an accumulation of amyloid?
What are the four patterns of Fibrosis in the liver? How are they caused?
Periacinar (around central vein) - chronic passive congestion
Biliary - accompanies inflammation of portal triads
Cirrhosis - extensive fibrotic lesions, end stage liver
Name three types of inflammation in the liver and where the inflammation has occured
Hepatits - liver parenchyma
Cholangitis - inflammation of bile ducts
Cholangiohepatitis - both
Give an example of a common viral disease which causes hepatitis in dogs. Describe the disease
Infectious canine hepatitis - highly infectious, widespread tropism on endothelium, enlarged tonsils and lymph nodes, normally young dogs, virus shed in urine
Give four examples of herpesviruses that cause hepatitis
Equine viral rhinopneumonitis
Infectious Bovine rhinotracheitis
Feline viral rhinopneumonitis
Give an example and describe a viral disease in cats that causes hepatitis
Feline infectious peritonitis - caused by enteric coronavirus, systemic vasculitis and effusions, either 'wet' or 'dry'
What routes of infection cause bacterial hepatitis?
Direct extension, haematogenous, hepatic abscessation
What is Bacillary Necrosis caused by? How does it infect in calves and cattle?
Fusobacterium necrophorum. Calves via umbilical infection - Cattle via ruminitis
What is Infectious necrotic hepatitis caused by? What is the pathology?
Clostridium novyi type B - extensive subcutaneous venous congestion and oedema
What is Bacillary haemoglobinuria caused by? What is the pathology similar to?
Clostridium haemolyticum - Black disease
What is Tyzzers disease caused by? What does it normally affect?
Clostridium piliforme (Bacillus piliformis) - Lab rodents
What is Leptospirosis? Why is it important to us?
Hepatic disease caused by many bacteria that cause widespread haemorrhages and icterus - zoonotic
Describe the disease Salmonellosis in calves
Infected with S. dublin - fever dehydration and diarrhoea - paratyphoid nodules in liver (foci of necrosis)
If there is acute intoxication of the liver what signs will be present and why?
Widespread haemorrhage - excess consumption of clotting factors and lack of production of clotting factors
In which diseases does cholecystitis (inflammation of gall bladder) occur?
Salmonellosis and Infectious Canine Hepatitis
What two scenarios of the biliary tree cause pathology? Which is more serious and why?
Obstruction (compression) or rupture. Rupture as the omentum can't seal it up
Give an example of 4 things that cause pathology in the exocrine pancreas
Developmental - pancreatitis - pancreatic hyperplasia - pancreatic neoplasia
What breed of dog is most commonly effected by pancreatic hypoplasia?
German Shepherd Dogs