Pathology of Liver and Pancreas Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology of Liver and Pancreas Deck (28):
1

What are the three zones of a normal liver lobule?

Periportal, Midzonal, Centrilobular

2

What is a portosystemic shunt?

Congenital or acquired disease where portal blood bypasses the liver

3

What is the difference between a congenital and acquired portosystemic shunt?

Congenital - shunt into vena cava, azygos or renal vein
Acquired - shunts secondary to fibrosis with multiple thin-walled shunts

4

What is right sided heart failure normally associated with in the liver?

Passive venous congestion

5

Describe the gross and microscopic appearance of passive venous congestion

Gross - enlarged liver, oozes blood when cut, enhanced lobulation (nutmeg liver)
Microscopic - engorged sinusoids and hepatic venules, atrophy of hepatocytes

6

Name four disorders of pigmentation in the liver

Melanin
Haemosiderin
Bile
Lipofuscin

7

What is Vacuolar Hepatopathies?

A degenerative disease where hydropic change happens in hepatocytes - may be caused by Cushings

8

What can cause lipidosis (fatty liver)?

Dietry factors, increased energy demand, disease (diabetes mellitus), abnormal hepatocyte function

9

What is lysosomal storage disease?

Deficiencies of lysosomal enzymes - causes macrophages with stored material to accumulate in liver, lymph, CNS etc

10

In amyloidosis, what stain can be used to show there is an accumulation of amyloid?

Congo red

11

What are the four patterns of Fibrosis in the liver? How are they caused?

Periacinar (around central vein) - chronic passive congestion
Biliary - accompanies inflammation of portal triads
Post-necrotic scarring
Cirrhosis - extensive fibrotic lesions, end stage liver

12

Name three types of inflammation in the liver and where the inflammation has occured

Hepatits - liver parenchyma
Cholangitis - inflammation of bile ducts
Cholangiohepatitis - both

13

Give an example of a common viral disease which causes hepatitis in dogs. Describe the disease

Infectious canine hepatitis - highly infectious, widespread tropism on endothelium, enlarged tonsils and lymph nodes, normally young dogs, virus shed in urine

14

Give four examples of herpesviruses that cause hepatitis

Equine viral rhinopneumonitis
Infectious Bovine rhinotracheitis
Feline viral rhinopneumonitis
Aujezsky's disease

15

Give an example and describe a viral disease in cats that causes hepatitis

Feline infectious peritonitis - caused by enteric coronavirus, systemic vasculitis and effusions, either 'wet' or 'dry'

16

What routes of infection cause bacterial hepatitis?

Direct extension, haematogenous, hepatic abscessation

17

What is Bacillary Necrosis caused by? How does it infect in calves and cattle?

Fusobacterium necrophorum. Calves via umbilical infection - Cattle via ruminitis

18

What is Infectious necrotic hepatitis caused by? What is the pathology?

Clostridium novyi type B - extensive subcutaneous venous congestion and oedema

19

What is Bacillary haemoglobinuria caused by? What is the pathology similar to?

Clostridium haemolyticum - Black disease

20

What is Tyzzers disease caused by? What does it normally affect?

Clostridium piliforme (Bacillus piliformis) - Lab rodents

21

What is Leptospirosis? Why is it important to us?

Hepatic disease caused by many bacteria that cause widespread haemorrhages and icterus - zoonotic

22

Describe the disease Salmonellosis in calves

Infected with S. dublin - fever dehydration and diarrhoea - paratyphoid nodules in liver (foci of necrosis)

23

If there is acute intoxication of the liver what signs will be present and why?

Widespread haemorrhage - excess consumption of clotting factors and lack of production of clotting factors

24

In which diseases does cholecystitis (inflammation of gall bladder) occur?

Salmonellosis and Infectious Canine Hepatitis

25

What two scenarios of the biliary tree cause pathology? Which is more serious and why?

Obstruction (compression) or rupture. Rupture as the omentum can't seal it up

26

Give an example of 4 things that cause pathology in the exocrine pancreas

Developmental - pancreatitis - pancreatic hyperplasia - pancreatic neoplasia

27

What breed of dog is most commonly effected by pancreatic hypoplasia?

German Shepherd Dogs

28

Give the clinical signs and gross findingsof acute pancreatitis

Clinical - shock, CVS collapse, raised lipase and amylase levels
Gross - chalk like areas of fat necrosis, local reddening, blood-tinged fluid with fat globules in abdomen