Pathology of Male Genitals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology of Male Genitals Deck (38)
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1
Q

Structure of the Male Urogenital Tract

A
2
Q
A
  • If you understand the sturcture and function, then you will know more of the disease process

scrotum:

Testes:

Epididymus:

Accessory glands:

Penis:

3
Q
A
  • main function is to keep things cool and keep the temperature sensitive sperm viable
  • Helps avoid infertility
4
Q
A
  • Each type of these cells can be affected by a tumor
  • Leydig cells produce testosterone
  • There is a barrier between the sperm and immune system (circulation) as the sperm cells are haploid and are seen as foreign
5
Q
A
6
Q
A
7
Q

Function of the Penis

A
8
Q

Diseases of the Scrotum

A
  • Anything affecting skin and hair can affect the scrotum as well (ex: sheep mange, frostbite trauma)
  • inflammation–> heat which is a loss of thermoregulatory function
9
Q

Tunica vaginalis

A
  • maintained connection with tunica marginalis?
  • echo
  • can also have tumors - but more rare
10
Q

Testis and Epididymus

(diseases)

A
  • Are the testis smaller than ususal? or larger?
11
Q

Intersex Conditions

A
  • testis is the gonadal tissue (called male)
  • mix between gonadal tissue (echo)
12
Q

Cryptorchidism

(small testis)

A
  • doesn’t migrate
  • there is a genetic component to it- don’t breed with them!
  • hot in the abdominal cavity- will be small due to no sperm surviving
  • Need to be careful as they can become neoplastic
13
Q

Testicular Hypoplasia

(Small testis)

A
  • different to atrophy or degeneration
  • never came into a proper working testis
  • Usually don’t realize a problem until after puberty
  • tend to be normal consistency- no fibrosis occuring
  • normal spermatogenesis is not happening
14
Q

Testicular Atrophy/Degeneration

(Small testis)

A
  • most common reason for male infertility
  • Feels firmer: usually get some fibrosis with it
  • you can get incomplete speratogenesis - multinuclear spermatids
15
Q

Inflammation of the testis: Orchitis

(large testis)

A
  • echo
  • The testis are anti-inflammatory in property
  • ascending infection is common, but not necessarily for the testis as they are anti-inflammatory
16
Q

Inflammation of the epididymis:

Epididymitis

A
  • talking about ascending infection
  • breakdown of spermatic membrane
  • swollen, red, impede production
  • pressure will cause testis to atrophy –> sterility
17
Q

Infectious epididymitis ram

A
  • Brucella does not cause abortion in the sheep - causes I.E. in the ram
18
Q
A
  1. Interstitial cell tumor/Leydig Cell
  2. Sertoli Cell Tumor
  3. Germ Cell Tumor (seminoma/teritoma)
  • often get a mix of all these!
19
Q

Interstitial Cell Tumors

(Leydig Cell Tumor)

A
  • bit reddish/orange
  • in testicular tissue –> do not cause swelling!
  • hormone levels produced can cause aggression
20
Q

Sertoli Cell Tumor

A
  • more malignant in the cryptotestis
  • cells going in a haphazard arrangement
  • 1/4 -1/3 produce hormones
  • can cause feminisation
21
Q

Sertoli Cell Tumor and Feminisation

A
  • symmetrical alopecia (should trigger idea that it may be endocrine related)
  • high estorgen levels can be myelotoxic
22
Q

Seminoma

A
  • 2nd most prominant in the dog
  • swelling of the testis
  • pale, large, lump in the middle of it
  • in histo: cells look a bit like lymphocytes, small cytoplasm, frequent mitotic figures
  • occurs predominantly in retained testis but not exclusively!
23
Q

Teratoma

A
  • Consists of 2 or 3 of the germ cell layers
  • hair in it–> has ectoderm in it
  • chaotic tumor–> is benign generally but can get really large
  • (echo)
24
Q

Pathology of the Accessory sex glands/prostate

A
  • neoplasia and inflammation is much less common
25
Q

Hyperplasia of Prostate

A
  • having more cells may result in an enlargement
  • can fit it in so it starts to make these papillary projections
  • can generally feel on rectal
  • They will present to you with constipation
  • If you castrate them, it tends to go away –> it is hormone dependent
26
Q

Neoplasia of Prostate

A
  • Usually a carcinoma
  • there is no evidence that castration prevents it or cures it
  • often metastasises
  • a lot of mitotic figures and marked fibrosis
  • predominantly will present with constipation, wasting away, and locomotor abnormalities
27
Q

Prostatitis

A
  • more rare
  • can get will hyperplasia
  • most cases will be subclinical
  • ruptured abscesses may result in septicemia or toxaemia
28
Q

Metaplasia of Prostate

A
  • changes from one type of cell to another
  • abnormal epithelium cover - more likely to get inflammed as it does not have the normal covering
    *
29
Q

Pathology of Penis and Prepuce

(non-infectious/infectious/neoplasia)

A
  • may be the source of infection that is found in females leading to venereal diseases
30
Q

Pathology of Penis and Prepuce

(non-inflammatory disease/inflammation)

A
31
Q

Herpesviral infections of the penis and prepuce

(EHV-3 and BHV-1)

A

IBP can cause in the same species (female) IBV?

32
Q

Other Infections of Penis and Prepuce

(Bacteria and Parasites)

A
  • pizzle rot: will pee into the prepuce and contaminate?
33
Q

Other Infections of the Penis and Prepuce

(Ulcerative Posthitis and Habronemiasis)

A
34
Q

Neoplasia of Penis and Prepuce

(squamous cell carcinoma)

A
  • most common one found
  • horses!
  • Cauliflower like
  • histo: you will find keratin formed in the cells
  • low grade malignancy
  • If you don’t get it all in amputation, it will come back
35
Q

Fibropapilloma of the Penis

A
  • benign tumor but it can get really large
36
Q

Transmissible venereal tumor

A
  • in the dog, rare in the UK
  • Usually spreads by coitus (planting of cells into the other animal) - female–> male, or male –> female
  • If dogs are in poor health, can metastisize
37
Q

Accessory Male Genital Glands

(stallion, bull, boar, ram, buck, dog, tom cat)

A
38
Q

Importance of Knowing pathology of male

A
  • as he mates with all the ewes!
  • Passing on disease or bad traits