Genital Pathology in Pregnant Uterus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Genital Pathology in Pregnant Uterus Deck (35)
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1
Q

Objectives

(4)

A
  • mostly ascending in both non-pregnant and pregnant
2
Q
A

A. Embryo

think about the differences between these definitions!

cant tell what sex or species it is

3
Q

Definitions

(Embryo, Foetus, Stillbirth, Abortion)

A

*

4
Q

Pregnancy

(& Hormones)

A
  • this is the reason a lot of animals and humans are immunocompromised during pregnancy
  • high progesterone levels
  • eCG in horses
  • echo
  • loss of progesterone can end up in an abortion - doesn’t always need to be an infectious disease
5
Q

Parturition and Abortion

A
  • can be from illness in fetus or dam
  • may die so fast that it may not release enough glucorticoids to be released
  • will hang around until released otherwise
6
Q

Embryonic Loss

A

this is actually very frequent!

  • majority are chromosomal abnormalities or underline issues in the uterus
  • echo
7
Q

Foetal Death

A
  • often occurs due to placentitis
8
Q

Foetal Death

(Aborted, Stillborn, Retained)

A
9
Q

Foetal Death

(uniparous and multiparous)

A
  • horse and cattle in particular are uniparous
  • late gestation - can’t really maintain pregnancy
  • multiparous: sow, dog
    *
10
Q
A
  • classically in the sow
  • generally caused by parvovirus, but can be casued by others
  • Stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, and Infertility
  • (echo)
11
Q
A

B. Bacterial Cause

-majority of bacteria would cause putrification –> you would get mummification

12
Q
A
  • If you get putrfication - you will get breakdown of the skin and the fetus will not remain
  • there can be a stillborn with a mummified fetus that go full term - shows they were infected with same thing at different times
  • generally it is just bones covered with dried up organs and skin (but most important thing to note is that if it is mummification–> ISNT PUTRIFYING BACTERIA)
13
Q
A
  • echo
  • foetus becomes liquified
  • maybe reabsorbed or expelled as a ball of pus
  • can be completely broken down (like this one) or incomplete
  • can often negatively affect the uterus and any further pregnancies
14
Q
A
  • need an open cervix to have this
  • tends to happen if you forget a twin calf in there that the cow is too tired to push out, the baby then dies and the mother will then a day later generally due to toxaemia
  • echo
15
Q

Non-Infectious Abortions

(percentages)

A
  • not all abortions are infectious - actually most are non-infectious
16
Q
A

C. Haematogenous Infection

-during pregnancy the cervix is closed

echo

17
Q

Infectious Abortions- Pathogen Entry

A
  • generally happen during coitus?
18
Q

Abortion Investigations in Livestock

(Sheep, Cattle, Pigs)

A
  • abortions in dogs, cats are rare and are rarely investigated
  • but in livestock it plays an important role! - can lead to massive losses
  • If you submit a fetus for investigation ALWAYS submit the placenta as well
  • most abortions are late in pregnancy
  • if it is very acute or above 5% then you want to start to investigate
  • no point in submitting a single fetus
19
Q
A
  • always the same 3 every year
  • want to exclude those 3 first in investigation to look at others
20
Q
A
  • less clearly defined than sheep
21
Q

Porcine Foetopathy 2016

(rate and causes)

A
22
Q
A
  • hasn’t been much coming out
  • most common is a non-infectious
  • concern is equine herpes!
23
Q
A
  • torsion of long umbilical cord
  • genetic diseases
  • abnormal palate
  • nutrition factors - iron deficiency leading to enlarged thyroid glands
24
Q
A

D. Acardiac Monster

  • wanted to be a cattle twin at one point
  • misdeveloped
  • hair and sometime teeth on the inside
25
Q

Infectious Abortions

A
  • think of these when you think infectious causes!
26
Q

Bacteria and Abortions

(chart)

A
  • these are quite some common causes
  • letter corresponds to species
  • timing will not tell you much, majority of them are later
  • majority of them cause placentitis
  • and quite a lot of them have zoonotic potential (coxiella burnetti in particular - Q- fever)
27
Q
A

Q for question

  • couldn’t figure out what it was
  • echo
28
Q
A

A. Aspergillus fumigatus

  • placenta looks very thick and leathery - suggests placentitis
  • white skin plaques on fetus are fungal growths
29
Q

Diagnosis of Bacterial and Fungal Diseases

A
  • predominantly diagnose by carrying out a culture
  • be aware of external contamination as it lands on the ground
  • tend not to culture placenta for this reason
  • can do the stomach contents of the fetus - amniotic fluid will be swallowed in small amounts over gestation (almost acts as a wash of the placenta - easy to get a good sample for contents)
  • some causes cannot be cultured (chlamydia abortus) - look at characteristical traits instead!
  • Leptospira can’t really be cultured either
30
Q

Viral Causes of Foetal Loss

A

green : major viral groups involved

  • herpes virus is always a good guess
    yellow: notifiable diseases
  • brucella is another notifiable disease to be aware of
  • they are all exotic to the UK so we must report that we don’t have it
31
Q

Diagnosis of Viral Abortions

A
  • virus isolation is rarely done as it usually takes a live fetus to have that virus?
  • echo
  • If you can look for antigen rather than antibody, do so
  • free foetal fluid is pericardial, peritoneal fluid, etc. (not stomach fluid)
32
Q
A
  • equine herpes- multifocal necrosis (often doesnt look like this)
  • BVD is cattle or panleukopaneia in cats - hypoplasia?
33
Q

Protozoal Causes of Foetal Loss

(Neospora caninum)

A
  • # 1 identified diagnosis of abortion in cattle
  • once it is infected, will remain infected generally for lifetime
  • most important way of it being spread is actually vertical! - not from other hosts
  • persistently infected calves
  • this will affect how you will go about approaching that
34
Q

Toxoplasma gondii

A
  • strawberry pip lesions?
  • multifocal necrosis in the cotyledons
  • generally doesn’t ever look like that so you will need further confirmations - foetal fluid serology –> look to see if it is Ab positive which is sufficient (price and speed point is more user friendly)
  • cat feces contamination
  • will be clinically significant
  • mummification is often seen - not putrefying bacteria
35
Q

Take Home Messages

(5)

A
  • need to be careful about when you further investigate
  • remember to submit the placenta for sampling!