Genital Pathology Non-Pregnant Female Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Genital Pathology Non-Pregnant Female Deck (43)
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1
Q

5 main objectives

A
  • ascending generally in both
2
Q
A
  • Haemotogenous is much more important in pregnant animals!
  • From ovary and transneural are quite rare
3
Q

Defense Mechanisms

(Innate and Adaptive Immunity)

A
  • uterus needs to be clean and sterile for foetal growth
  • but also needs to allow sperm and other foreign things in
  • needs immunity that keeps it alive but also allows the foreign body foetus to survive (dampened immunity)
  • normal cleansing process that is influenced to go downwards with gravity
4
Q

Influence of Hormones on Immunity

A
  • refers only to immunity of the genital tract
  • better disease resistance under theinfluence of oestrogen
  • uterus more susceptible … –> (in bitch most of all)
  • If there isnt PGF2a to rid of the CL then you will have continued production of progesterone and mre susceptibility to infection
5
Q

Outline of Main Disorders of the Female Genital Tract

A
6
Q

Levels at which sex can be defined

(4)

A
  • a lot of things can go wrong during sexual development
7
Q
A

B. Male Pseudohermaphrodite

  • there are testis and a uterus/vagina with it
  • based on the gonadal sex
  • if there is testis present—> male
  • goats and american cocker spaniels
  • look up pseudohermaphrodite
8
Q
A

C. True Hermaphrodite

  • there is an ovary on the left
  • unclear what is on the rght
  • histo shows mixed tissue (ovotestis)–> makes this a true hermaphrodite
9
Q
A
  • very common in twin pregnancies of twin calves
  • male animal supressing the female development
10
Q
A

B. Right

  • acquired cysts on the right
  • developmental on the left
11
Q

Ovary

(non-infectious disease of the ovary)

A
  • paraovarian: not in the ovary, but in the tissue surrounding the ovary
  • intraovarian: within the ovary
  • developmental: does not affect the hormonal aspects in the ovary, only cause problems if they get too large and impair structures (see in gilts and pigs and such)
  • acquired: luteal cysts, follicular, etc. –> usually affecting the hormonal function of the ovary and may end up in sterility
  • usually affect hormonal function of the ovary which become clinically significant and affect fertility
12
Q
A
  • if LH surge isnt there you wont get ovulation
  • -cysts develop
13
Q

Follicular cysts/Cystic Ovarian Follicles

A
  • common in cows, and sows as such
  • If it is there for more than 10 days can be considered a follicular cyst
  • lack of ovulation usually due to something in the hypothalamus not producing the peak or ovarian causes
  • echo
  • will usually show no signs of ovulation or more rare (nymphomania) - constant oestrus
14
Q

Anovulatory luteinised cyst

(Luteal Cyst)

A
  • 60 % in cattle will be follicular, and other 30% will generally be luteal
  • may be a bit of progesterone production with it
  • clinically significant
15
Q

Cystic CL

A
  • when ovulation has taken place!
  • don’t confuse with luteal cysts
  • these are completely incidental, do not affect fertility
16
Q

Oophoritis

A
  • usually associated with infection of uterus or systemic disease
17
Q

Ovarian Neoplasms

A
  • think about what type of cells are there and which can become neoplastic
18
Q

Germ Cell Neoplasms

(2)

A
  • difference between them is one is form primitive germ cells while the other from totipotent
  • these are theones with hairs in it, etc. (echo)
19
Q

Sex cord-stromal tumours

A
  • These can produce steroids, androgens, estrogens
  • echo for arrow
  • tend to affect older animal but can affect the young ones too!
20
Q
A

C. Metastasis by contact of surface

21
Q

Epithelial Neoplasms

A
  • Transcoelmic spread can seed itself by touch into the peritoneal cavity for example
  • carcinomas generally
  • should be considered as a differential for ascites in an older bitch!
  • why does it end up in fluid accumlation? - due to blocking the lymphatics, cant drain, just start draining into it
22
Q
A
  • gets blocked
  • usually a congenital factor including an ascending infection
  • gilts?
  • echo
23
Q

Non-infectious disease

(uterus)

A
  • almost all of them are medical emergencies!
  • there is a cut off of blood supply
  • animal will die without repair
24
Q
A

D) Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia

-quite a few cysts indicating something cystic is happening

echo

25
Q
A
  • mainly affects bitches and queens to a lesser degree
  • long progesterone phase making the uterus more prone to infections as immunity is worse (like in pregnancy)
  • get secretions in there and mucometria
  • gets worse as they get older, secondary infection–> they would love the warm, moist enviroment
  • env’t more forthcoming for the bacteria
26
Q

Pyometra

(Bitch)

A
  • pus is how we identify the pyometra
  • has to be during that progesterone phase for infection ot take place
  • very common in older nulliparous bitches
  • is the cervix closed or partially open? - open is less severe, but closed is a huge emergency (pus has nowhere to escape, toxemia)
27
Q
A

echo

28
Q

Pyometra

(in cow)

A
  • CL persists and therefore high progesterone levels persist
  • our treatments should aim to get the cow cycling again
  • If you do a rectal, it can sometimes feel like a pregnancy
29
Q

Pyometra

(in Mare)

A
  • don’t fully understand sometimes why they develop it
  • they continue cycling unlike the cow so hormones are less of a concern
  • but the formation of their perineal can be an issue where you could constantly have remnants in there causing chronic infection
  • tends to be more common in older mares
30
Q

Inflammatory Diseases of the Uterus

(3)

A
31
Q
A

A. and D.

-not E. –> it is actually a prequel

32
Q

Endometritis

A
  • if it is 3 weeks after calving, they will speak of endometritis regardless of what is affected (just be aware)
  • most of them will have it post-partum and it will clean it, but some can become chronic and fibrous
  • won’t rid of CL and then you get chronic endometritis
  • they are very frustrating to treat in cows and mares!
33
Q

Metritis

A
  • can affect seros and get into the blood stream leading to septicemia, toxaemias
  • friable uterus
  • hemorrhages
34
Q

Leiomyoma

(smooth muscle)

A
  • most commonly in the bitch
  • not only affects uterus, but cervix and vagina
  • multiple nodules, not just one usually
  • need to do an ovariohystorectomy and then usually smaller ones will vanish by themselves
  • most of them are benign
35
Q

Neoplasia

(Carcinoma and Lymphosarcoma)

A
  • carcinoma is the most common spontaneous one in rabbits
  • neoplasm in an adult cow is always notifiable- as it could be EBL and needs to be investigated further (it is quite widespread in the US, but free of it in the UK)
  • Uterus is one of the target organs for EBL
36
Q

Non-Inflammatory Diseases

(vulva & vagina)

A
  • sweilling for vulva/vaginal region
  • microtoxin that is frequently observed in the (endogenous/exogenous estrogen)
  • echo
37
Q

Inflammatory Diseases

(Vulva & Vagina)

A
  • Dourine- more widespread in S. America
38
Q
A
  • echo
  • usually self-limiting and will vansih over time
  • can cause infertility in heifers
  • IBR - respiratory disease (usually where is comes from, animals breathing onto the vagina)
39
Q

Neoplasms

(Vulva & Vagina)

A
40
Q

Transmissible Venereal Tumour

A
  • neoplastic cells are being transfered to the other animal and can be established as neoplastic there
  • much more in southern europe and african countries
41
Q
A
  • problem really is the size
  • pic: this would cause issues with urination
  • it will generally vanish as long as it doesnt cause issues with renal and other systems
42
Q

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

A
  • tail docked animals- -> if their vaginas are exposed to too much UV sunlight
43
Q

4 Key messages to take home

A