Pathology of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Pathology of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands Deck (63)
Loading flashcards...

What is a pituitary adenoma?

- benign tumor of ANTERIOR pituitary cells
- may be FUNCTIONAL (produces hormones) or NONfunctional (does not produce hormones)


**** How do NONfunctional pituitary adenomas present?

with mass effect:
- BITEMPORAL HEMIANOPSIA (due to proximity of optic chiasm to sella turcica).
- HYPOpituitarism
- headache


How do FUNCTIONAL pituitary adenomas present?

- features based on hormone produced.


**** What is a Prolactinoma?

most common type of functional pituitary adenoma causing:
- galactorrhea and amenorrhea due to prolactin's inhibition of GnRH, decreasing FSH and LH (females)
- decreased libido and headache (males)
- may undergo DYSTROPHIC CALCIFICATION (calcium deposition with normal serum calcium) with psammoma bodies
- AMYLOID deposition (apple green birefringence)
- PERINUCLEAR CRESCENTS of prolactin immunopositivity


How do you treat a prolactinoma?

- dopamine agonists; bromocriptine (inhibits prolactin secretion) or surgery


*** What is a Growth Hormone adenoma?

functional pituitary adenoma causing:
- GIGANTISM in children
- ACROMEGALY in adults
- T2DM (GH causes decreased glucose uptake in cells)


*** How do you diagnose Growth Hormone adenoma?

- elevated GH and IGF-1
- oral glucose will NOT suppress GH release.


How do you treat GH adenoma?

- OCTREOTIDE (somatostatin analog that blocks the response of the anterior pituitary to GHRH).
- GH receptor antagonists
- surgery


What are some other FUNCTIONAL pituitary adenomas?

- ACTH cell adenomas= secrete ACTH leading to hypersecretion of cortisol (Cushing disease). Hyperpigmentation due to ACTH precursor products on melanocytes.
- Thyrotroph= TSH
*LH and FSH-producing adenomas are rare.


What is HYPOpituitarism?

- insufficient production of hormones by anterior pituitary.


**** What can cause HYPOpituitarism?

- pituitary adenoma (adults)
- CRANIOPHARYNGIOMAS (children)= slow growing cystic tumors (cholesterol crystals, keratin, peripheral palisading) arising from suprasellar regions, causing headaches and visual problems.
- SHEEHAN SYNDROME= infarcted pituitary due to increase in size during pregnancy, but lack of blood flow increase; women present with poor lactation and loss of pubic hair.
- EMPTY SELLA SYNDROME= defect in the diaphragm sella allowing the arachnoid mater CSF to herniate into the sella, expanding the sella and compresses the pituitary, leading to PANHYPOPITUITARISM (hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, amenorrhea).


*** What are the POSTERIOR pituitary pathologies?

- central diabetes insipidus


*** What is Central Diabetes Insipidus?

- increased urination (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia) due to ADH deficiency (due to hypothalamic or posterior pituitary pathology).
- hypernatremia and high serum osmolality.
- low urine osmolality and specific gravity.


How do you diagnose Central Diabetes Insipidus?

- water deprivation fails to increase urine osmolality.


How do you treat Central Diabetes Insipidus?

- Desmopressin (ADH analog).


*** What is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

- impaired renal response to ADH due to inherited mutations or drugs (lithium).
*similar to central DI, but there is no response to desmopressin.


*** What is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion)?

- excessive ADH secretion leading to hyponatremia, low serum osmolality, mental status change, and seizures (from cerebral edema).


*** What can cause SIADH?

- ectopic production (small cell carcinoma of the lung).
- CNS trauma
- pulmonary infection or pathology (COPD)
- drugs (cyclophosphamide)


How do you treat SIADH?

- free water restriction
- demeclocycline (blocks effect of ADH).


What is pituitary apoplexy?

- bleeding into an adenoma


What genetic components lead to pituitary adenomas?

- G alpha proteins generating cAMP, which is a mitogenic stimulus due to GNAS mutation interfering with intrinsic GTPase activity, which hydrolyzes GTP (required for cAMP generation) to GDP.


What genetic products are associated with familial pituitary adenomas?

- CDKN1B= MEN like syndromes
- PRKAR1A= Carney's syndrome
- AIP= GH adenomas


What is the morphology of adenomas?

- cellular monomorphism and absence of a reticulin network.


What is hypopituitarism?

- decreased secretion of pituitary hormones.


What percentage of parenchyma must be lost for hypofunction of the anterior pituitary to occur?

- 75%


What is a Rathke cleft cyst??

- cysts lined by ciliated cuboidal epithelium, which can expand and compress the normal gland.


Are most metastatic pituitary tumors symptomatic?

NO, they are mostly asymptomatic.


What are the 3 layers of the ADRENAL CORTEX?

1. Glomerulosa= aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)
2. Fasiculata= cortisol (glucocorticoids)
3. Reticularis= sex steroids
*remember GFR and all hormones are synthesized from cholesterol here ("gets sweeter as you get deeper").


**** What is CUSHING Syndrome and what are the clinical features? (PICMONIC)

Excess cortisol causing:
- muscle weakness with thin extremities (due to breaking down muscle for gluconeogenesis).
- moon facies, buffalo hump, and truncal obesity (due to excess glucose in the blood causing excess production of insulin leading to excess storage of fat).
- abdominal striae (cortisol impairs the synthesis of collagen, leading to easily ruptured blood vessels).
- HTN (cortisol upregulates alpha 1 receptors on arterioles increasing the effect of norepinephrine)
- Osteoporosis
- Immune suppression


*** What are the 3 mechanisms by which cortisol results in immune suppression?

1. inhibits phospholipase A2, preventing synthesis of arachidonic metabolites.
2. inhibits IL-2 (important T cell growth factor)
3. inhibits release of histamine from mast cells.