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Flashcards in Endocrine Physiology Deck (48)
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1

What is the purpose of the ENDOcrine system?

- to synthesize, store, and secrete HORMONES into the BLOOD to act on target tissues.

2

What is the purpose of the EXOcrine system?

- secretion of substances through DUCTS.

3

What is the purpose of Feedback regulation?

- to maintain a balance of hormone quantity and effects.

4

What is the chemical modulation of metabolic events?

- adaption to surrounding environment

5

What is an example of systems integration of the endocrine system?

- integration of sympathetic nervous system (autonomic nervous system) with the adrenals to increase release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
- integration of parasympathetic nervous system with GI hormones following a meal to increase splanchnic blood flow for absorption of nutrients.

6

From where does the endocrine system begin?

- hypothalamus and pituitary

7

*** What is a hormone?

- polypeptide/protein secreted by one cell cluster or organ, which is then secreted into the blood stream or bodily fluid and acts on a TARGET TISSUE elsewhere in the body.

8

What are some examples of hormones that act LOCALLY?

- acetylcholine
- secretin
- cholecystokinin (gall bladder contraction)
- pancreatic HCO3 secretion

9

What are some examples of GENERAL hormones?

- epinephrine (fight or flight)
- norepinephrine (fight or flight)
- thyroid hormone (metabolism/growth)

10

What are the major endocrine organs?

- hypothalamus
- PITUITARY
- pineal gland
- thyroid
- parathyroid
- thymus
- adrenals
- pancreas
- ovary
- testes
- placenta

11

What is the endocrine function of the heart?

- secretion of natriuretic peptide, which affects whether we retain water or not.

12

Why would a person who has a thyroidectomy have a seizure?

- calcium deficiency secondary to removal of parathyroid glands with the thyroid tissue.

13

What are the 2 parts of the pituitary gland (hypophysis)?

- ADENOhypophysis (anterior)
- NEUROhypophysis (posterior)
*nerve fibers enter from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei sitting above the optic chiasm

14

From where does the majority of the blood supply enter/exit the pituitary?

- infundibular process
*aka where the pituitary hormones are exit upon release from the anterior or posterior pituitary.

15

Can trauma or infection of the nose/nasopharynx affect the pituitary gland?

YES

16

How can anatomic pituitary problems (tumors) affect vision?

- spacial relationship to optic chiasm of optic nerves.

17

What is the importance of the anatomic relationship of the pituitary gland with the cavernous sinus?

- it rests within this sinus and a clot here could lead devastating changes in the blood flow.

18

What hormones are secreted from the ANTERIOR pituitary (adenohypophysis)?

- GH
- ACTH
- TSH
- FSH
- LH
- prolactin (milk production)

19

What are the 5 cell types of the ANTERIOR pituitary (adenohypophysis)?

1. somatotropes (GH)
2. cotricotropes (ACTH)
3. thyrotropes (TSH)
4. gonadotropes (FSH/LH)
5. lactotropes (prolactin)

20

What hormones are released from the HYPOTHALAMUS that affect the anterior pituitary?

- GHRH= GH release
- CRH= ACTH release
- TRH= TSH release
- GnRH= FSH/LH release
- PIH (prolactin inhibitory hormone)= suppresses prolactin release.

21

What are the POSTERIOR pituitary hormones (neurohypophysis)?

- oxytocin= uterine contractions and release of breast milk.
- vasopressin (ADH)= increases blood pressure via renal permeability (for water reabsorption) and vasoconstriction. Also increases thirst to drink more.

22

What is the function of ACTH on the ADRENAL CORTEX?

- stimulates ALDOSTERONE production in the adrenal cortex (zona glomerulosa) to increase Na+ and water reabsorption in the DCT to increase BP.
- stimulates the adrenal cortex (zona fasiculata) to synthesize and release CORTISOL (made from cholesterol) which helps up to deal with stress (fight or flight).

23

What are the STEROID hormones?

- cortisol
- aldosterone

24

What are the TYROSINE derivative hormones? (obtained from eating protein rich foods)

- thyroxine
- triiodothytronine
- epinephrine/norepi
*produced in the cytoplasm

25

What are the PEPTIDE hormones?

- all others
*produced in the rough (granular) ER and secreted from the golgi.

26

Are hormones present and effective in MINUTE quantities?

YES

27

What is the onset of hormones?

- seconds, minutes, hours, or days.

28

How is hormone secretion suppressed?

- via negative feedback mechanism

29

What hormone types bind to cell membrane receptors?

- peptides and catecholamies (epi/norepi)

30

What hormones bind in the cytoplasm?

- steroids