Pathology Part 1 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology Part 1 Review Deck (26)
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1

What is Atherosclerosis?

refers to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls (plaque), which can restrict blood flow. The plaque can burst, triggering a blood clot.

2

Atherosclerosis/Arteriosclerosis Patchy thickening (atheromas -fatty streaks) of subintimal wal (medium and large arteries) does what to the arterial walls?

arterial wall becomes thick and loses elasticity, dystrophic calcification (thrombus)

3

What is atheromas?
Subintimal wall includes what size arteries?

Fatty streaks
medium and large

4

What are risk factors of arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis?

hypertension (over 45 yoa), increased serum lipids, smoking DM, male mordid obesity female rates increase after menopause, M/F > 65, LDL > 160 mg/dL, Familial type III Hyperlipoproteinemia

5

What condition is the main cause of ischemic heart disease and cerebrobascular disease?

Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis

6

What are the types of arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis?

Monekeberg
Obliteans
Peripheral

7

What is monekeberg?

clacified tunica media, medium sized arteries (femoral, radial and eterine)

8

What are obliterans?

proliferation intima, small vessels and obliterates artery

9

Peripheral ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease is defined as

Arteriosclerosis of extremities

10

ID ways to reach Depolarization in a neuron

1. Influx Na (facilitated diffusion)
2. Ascending phase
3. Impulse likely
4. Na++ gates closed
5. Threshold occurs: -55 and -50 mV

11

ID ways to reach Repolarization of a neuron.

1. Efflux Potassium (facilitated diffusion)
2. Inside membrane less positive
3. Membrane potential towards “Resting” (K+)
4. Descending phase

12

In a nerve action potential, describe resting stated.
What value is the membrane polarized at?

Before Action Potential
Valued at -90 millivolts (mV) membrane potential

13

Action potential depolarization stage is permeable to what ions?
How does it change the inside?

Permeable to Na+ ions
Makes the inside of neuron “more +”
-90 mV immediately neutralized

14

What occurs during repolarization stage? How fast?

Na+ Chanel’s BEgin to close and K+ channels open Wider
10,000th of a sec

15

A rapid diffusion of K+ occurs in what direction? What does it re-establish?

Exterior
Normal neg resting membrane potential

16

A. Voltage-gated Na channel outside channel is called what?
B. What is the inside channel called what?
C. What causes activation gate to flip completely open?
D. Inactivation gates ___ more slowly.

A. Activated gate
B. Inactivation gate
C. -70 to -50 mV, Na+ ions pour in
D. Closes

17

The presynaptic transmissions of a neuron does what to the signal.

Sends the signal

18

The Postsynaptic neuron signals are what?

Receives signal

19

Axodendritie synaptic transmission is from

most synapses, from axon to dendrite

20

Axosomatic synaptic transmission are from axon to what?

Soma

21

AxoaXonic is from

Axon to axon

22

The __ drains the lumbers into the ___.

Azygous vein
SVC

23

Where does the P-wave start?
Where is this structure located?

Starts at the Sino-Atrial (SA) Node
Located in the Crista Terminalisi of R atrium

24

The SA node impulse to the AV node. What is the purpose of the AV node?

The purpose is to delay the P-R interval, giving more time between atrial contraction and ventricular contraction

25

The midgut rotates ___ degrees and in what direction around the Superior mesenteric artery?
About how ___ degrees of rotation occurs during herniation and ___ dgresss during regression?

270 around Superior mesenteric artery
Rotates 90 degrees during herniation
180 degrees of rotation during gression

26

What occurs after mitral valve closes?

1. isovolumic contraction
2. pressure in