Flashcards in Pathology - Pulmonary Infection Deck (16):
Where is pneumonia usually situated in the lungs?
In the distal air spaces with inflammatory exudation. Slide 4
What organisms can cause pneumonia?
Viruses e.g. influenza
Bacteria e.g. mycoplasma
Fungi. Slide 6
What organisms usually causes lobar pneumonia where there is consolidation of the complete lobe?
Strep. pneumoniae. Slide 7
What are complications of pneumonia?
Empyema. Slide 13
What is bronchopneumonia?
Infections tarting in airways and spreading to adjacent alveolar lung. Slide 15
What are the characteristics of bronchopneumonia and how can it occur?
Patchy consolidation and surrounds airways.
People with COPD, cardiac failure. If there is a complication of a viral infection and aspiration of gastric contents. Slide 16+17
What organisms can cause bronchopneumonia?
Strep. pneumoniae, haemophilus influenza, staph., anaerobes and coliforms. Slide 18
What is a lung abscess?
Localised collection of pus and is tumour like. Slide 20
What is bronchiecstasis?
It is the abnormal fixed dilation of the bronchi often due to fibrous scarring from infection. It causes accumulation of purulent secretions. Slide 22
How do the T cells respond when they detect mycobacteria?
Enhance the macrophages ability to kill it but also cause granulomatous inflammation and necrosis due to hypersensitivity. Slide 27
What is secondary TB?
REactivation of the disease in a person with immunity.
What is Ghon Focus?
Small focus in roughly the mid to lower zone . Slide 30
What are tissue changes in secondary TB?
Fibrosing and cavitating apical lesions. Slide 30
What is characteristic of Miliary TB?
Many white necrotic areas due to the blood spread. Slide 36
Why does TB ever reactivate?
Due to decreased T-cell function e.g. HIV or drugs
Reinfection due to a more virulent organism. Slide 39