Flashcards in Stridor and Sleep Apnoea Deck (16):
What is stridor?
Predominantly inspiratory wheeze in the large airways in the URT due to obstruction. Slide 4
What can be causes of inspiratory stridor in the supraglottis/larynx?
Laryngomalacia, supraglottic massm glottic lesions and vocal cord paralysis. Slide 5
What are causes of stridor in children?
Infections e.g. croup, epiglottitis
Other e.g. inhaled burns
What are causes of stridor in adults?
Neoplasms on the larynx, trachea and major bronchi
Other e.g. cricoarytenoid arthritis. Slide 9
What is tracheomalacia?
Loss of structure in the cartilage of the trachea. Slide 16
How do you investigate stridor?
Laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, flow volume loop, CXR and other imaging. Slide 19
How do you treat a laryngeal obstruction
Treat underlying cause e.g. foreign body removal
Tracheostomy. Slide 22
What is acute anaphylaxis?
Type 1 hypersensitivity. Slide 30
What are the treatments of anaphylaxis?
Immediate IM adrenaline (epipen)
High flow O2
Endotracheal intubation if necessary.
Long term: Allergen avoidance, desensitisation. Slide 33
What is the Epworth Sleepiness scale and what is normal?
A scale to measure daytime sleepiness. Normal is <10/24. Slide 38
What is snoring?
Relaxation of pharyngeal dilator muscles so the upper airway is narrowed and causes turbulent airflow and vibration of the soft palate. Slide 40
What is obstructive sleep apnoea?
Intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep and causes sleep fragmentation. Slide 43
What are the risk factors for sleep apnoea?
Retrognathia - lower jaw set back
Neurological problems e.g. stroke
Drugs. Slide 45
What are some consequences of Sleep Apnoea?
Excessive daytime sleepiness
Impaired endothelial function.
What features help diagnose Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?
Snoring and EDS
Overnight sleep study of patient - oximetry and domicillary recording. Slide 50