Stridor and Sleep Apnoea Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Stridor and Sleep Apnoea Deck (16):
1

What is stridor?

Predominantly inspiratory wheeze in the large airways in the URT due to obstruction. Slide 4

2

What can be causes of inspiratory stridor in the supraglottis/larynx?

Laryngomalacia, supraglottic massm glottic lesions and vocal cord paralysis. Slide 5

3

What are causes of stridor in children?

Infections e.g. croup, epiglottitis
Foreign body
Anaphylaxis
Other e.g. inhaled burns

4

What are causes of stridor in adults?

Neoplasms on the larynx, trachea and major bronchi
Anaphylaxis
Goitre
Trauma
Other e.g. cricoarytenoid arthritis. Slide 9

5

What is tracheomalacia?

Loss of structure in the cartilage of the trachea. Slide 16

6

How do you investigate stridor?

Laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, flow volume loop, CXR and other imaging. Slide 19

7

How do you treat a laryngeal obstruction

Treat underlying cause e.g. foreign body removal
Cricothyroidotomy
Tracheostomy. Slide 22

8

What is acute anaphylaxis?

Type 1 hypersensitivity. Slide 30

9

What are the treatments of anaphylaxis?

Immediate IM adrenaline (epipen)
IV antihistamine+corticosteroid
High flow O2
Endotracheal intubation if necessary.
Long term: Allergen avoidance, desensitisation. Slide 33

10

What is the Epworth Sleepiness scale and what is normal?

A scale to measure daytime sleepiness. Normal is <10/24. Slide 38

11

What is snoring?

Relaxation of pharyngeal dilator muscles so the upper airway is narrowed and causes turbulent airflow and vibration of the soft palate. Slide 40

12

What is obstructive sleep apnoea?

Intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep and causes sleep fragmentation. Slide 43

13

What are the risk factors for sleep apnoea?

Enlarged tonsils
Obesity
Retrognathia - lower jaw set back
Acromegaly
Neurological problems e.g. stroke
Drugs. Slide 45

14

What are some consequences of Sleep Apnoea?

Excessive daytime sleepiness
Personality change
Cognitive impairment
Hypertension
Raised CRP
Impaired endothelial function.
Slide 46+49

15

What features help diagnose Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?

Snoring and EDS
Overnight sleep study of patient - oximetry and domicillary recording. Slide 50

16

How can you treat Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?

Remove underlying cause
CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure
Mandibular Advancement Device
Surgery
Slide 52+55

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