Patterning the vertebrate body plan Flashcards Preview

Building the nervous system > Patterning the vertebrate body plan > Flashcards

Flashcards in Patterning the vertebrate body plan Deck (18):
1

What is the neural plate

Group of cells from which all neural tissue is derived from

2

In drosophila, what is the role of Dpp and Sog

Dpp and Sog dictate the dorsal and ventral sides of the developing body plan - Sog binds to Dpp and prevents it from therefore binding to Dpp receptors
This in turn causes surrounding cells to acquire a neural identity - neural cells develop in regions where Dpp is inhibited

3

What is the vertebrate homologue of Dpp

BMP4

4

What is the vertebrate homologue of Sog

Chordin

5

Where are BMPs found in vertabrates

On the ventral side - chordin dorsal

6

What is the key difference between vertebrates and invertebrates developing neural tissue

In invertebrates - single neuroblasts are formed from the delamination of surface ectoderm - go on to form neurons in small clusters (ganglia)
In vertebrates - Sheets of cells on the dorsal side of the embryo are induced to a neural identity - formation of the neural plate - this then rolls up to form the neural tube (neurulation)

7

What is the specialised type of mesoderm that forms in the Xenopus oocyte

Spemann's organiser

8

What transcription factors are produced by Spemann's organiser

Goosecoid, Xnot and Xlim

9

What BMP antagonists are produced as a result of the specialised transcription factors

Noggin, Chordin, Cb

10

How do Noggin, Chordin and Cb interact with BMP

Bind with a higher affinity than BMP to its receptors blocking its action
Also bind to BMP itself causing a conformational change in the protein - no longer can bind to receptor

11

Where is BMP action inhibited

Entirely inhibited in the dorsal region of the embryo

12

What will the inhibited cells go on to produce

Neural plate - surrounded by ectoderm that wasn't exposed to BMP antagonists and remain as surface ectoderm

13

How do chicks and humans develop differently

Chick embryos are a flattened disc known as a blastodisc

14

What is the name of the specialised region of cells that secretes BMP antagonists in the chick embryo

Henson's Node

15

Where does Henson's node develop

At the anterior end of the primitive streak

16

What did Spemann's experiments on newts show

Grafted the organiser from one newt embryo and grafted it onto the ventral side of another newt embryo
This induced a second body axis and second nervous system derived from the host cells ectoderm
Indicates that signals from the grafted tissue were sufficient to induce the host tissue to acquire a neural fate
Also provided the first evidence that Spemann's organiser will differentiate into axial mesoderm which gives rise to the notochord

17

How were BMP antagonists discovered

Through interrogating mRNA in organiser cells and looking for a transcript that would mimic the organisers ability to induce a secondary neural plate

18

What are three features of a neural inducer

1. Must be expressed in the organiser
2. Overexpression at an ectopic site will cause the generation of a second body axis
3. KO should prevent axis formation