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Flashcards in Patterns in Nature Deck (22)
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1

Electron microscope
Adv
Dis

- high magnification and resolution
- only non-living sections can be viewed and expensive

2

Mitochondria
- structure
-function

-surrounded by a double membrane (outer smooth and inner highly folded)
- on the fold chemical reactions occur producing energy

3

Chloroplast
Structure
Function

Double membrane, green plastids, found only in green plants
Membrane contains chlorophyll pigments and enzymes needed for photosynthesis

4

Golgi body
Structure
Function

Stacks of flattened membrane sacs
Chemically modifies, stores and distributes substances

5

Organic molecule examples

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acid

6

Inorganic molecule examples

Water
Oxygen
Salts( chlorides, phosphates)

7

Why we need carbohydrates

Important sources of energy in cells, they are broken down to glucose when energy is required

8

Organic molecules uses in cell activity

Lipids( fats- store of energy)
Proteins- growth and repair in the body
Nucleic acids- role in determining heredity
Carbohydrates- source of energy + broken down to glucose when every is needed

9

Movement of molecules in and out of cells

Living cells are continuing exchanging materials with their external environment
Every cell is surrounded by a cell membrane
Cell membrane regulates the flow of substances in and out of the cell

10

Osmosis

Movement of a solvent(usually water) through a semi permeable membrane from high concentration to low concentration until two concentrations are equal

11

Diffusion

Movement or spreading out of any type of molecules (liquid and gas) from more concentrated to less
Occurs whether or not a membrane exists

12

Substances in tissues tests

Glucose Benedictus and heat blue to orange
Starch iodine yellow to blue black
Lipid brown paper translucent
Protein biuret test clear to purple
Chloride ions silver nitrate white precipitate
Lignin phluroglucinol clear to red

13

Leaf structure and function order

Cuticle- prevents water loss

Upper epidermis- prevents water loss and provides and extra layer between the outside & inside of leaf (holes at top)

Palisade cells- contain chloroplasts & responsible for producing food and oxygen for plant through photosynthesis (row of holes in middle)
Spongy mesophyll ( main part)

14

Surface area to volume ratio- why could be bad

Area of the surface affects the rate at which nutrients can enter the cells and the rate waste can leave
As cells grow its needs are greater which isn't good so it divides into two smaller cells

15

Why cells need to be small in multicellular organisms

Human body
Answer

16

Light microscopes
Adv
Dis

Stream of light that focuses through a lense through a specimen
- living cells can be viewed
- limited visible detail

17

Autotrophs

Self feeding
They obtain their food by producing their own nutrients requirements by photosynthesis
Require carbon dioxide and water
Plant + some bacteria

18

Heterotrophs

They obtain their food from their external environment
Require water proteins carbohydrates lipids
Animals

19

Two main stages of photosynthesis

1 light stage
During the day
Occurs in cytoplasm of cells in leaves
Splits the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen

2 dark stage
Any time of day
Occurs in stroma or fluid matrix of chloroplasts

Stage 2 can't occur without stage 1

20

Functions of cecum

Aniston fluids and salts that remain after completion of intestinal digestion and to mix its contents with lubricating substance, mucus - herbivores and carnivores

21

Fluid mosaic model

Membrane structure in cells
States that membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer with various protein molecule floating floating around within

22

Herbivore and carnivore

Herbivores have 4 chambers of their stomachs as grass takes longer to digest

Carnivores have a less structured stomach as meat and bones takes less to digest and is more efficient

Chemical compositions of their diet is cellulose for herbivore and protein for carnivore

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