Pediatric Surgery, C67 P517-572 Flashcards Preview

Section III Subspecialty Surgery P517 > Pediatric Surgery, C67 P517-572 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatric Surgery, C67 P517-572 Deck (503)
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1

What is the motto of
pediatric surgery?
P517

“Children are NOT little adults!”

2

What is a simple way to
distract a pediatric patient
when examining the
abdomen for tenderness?
P517

Listen to the abdomen with the
stethoscope and then push down on the
abdomen with the stethoscope to check
for tenderness

3

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What is the estimated blood
volume of infants and children?
P517

≈8% of body weight or ≈80 cc/kg

4

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What is the maintenance IV
fluid for children?
P517

D5 1/4 NS + 20 mEq KCl

5

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
Why 1/4 NS?
P517

Children (especially those younger than
4 years of age) cannot concentrate their
urine and cannot clear excess sodium

6

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
How are maintenance fluid
rates calculated in children?
P517

4, 2, 1 per hour:
4 cc/kg for the first 10 kg of body
weight
2 cc/kg for the second 10 kg of
body weight
1 cc/kg for every kilogram over
the first 20 (e.g., the rate for a
child weighing 25 kg is 4 x 10 = 40
plus 2 x 10 = 20 plus 1 x 5 = 5,
for an IVF rate of 65 cc/hr)

7

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What is the minimal urine
output for children?
P517

From 1 to 2 mL/kg/hr

8

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What is the best way to
present urine output
measurements on rounds?
P518

Urine output total per shift, THEN cc/kg/hr

9

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What is the major difference
between adult and pediatric
nutritional needs?
P518

Premature infants/infants/children need
more calories and protein/kg/day

10

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the caloric requirements by age for the following patients:
Premature infants?
P518

80 Kcal/kg/day and then go up

11

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the caloric requirements by age for the following patients:
Children younger than
1 year?
P518

≈100 Kcal/kg/day (90–120)

12

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the caloric requirements by age for the following patients:
Children ages 1 to 7?
P518

≈85 Kcal/kg/day (75–90)

13

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the caloric requirements by age for the following patients:
Children ages 7 to 12?
P518

≈70 Kcal/kg/day (60–75)

14

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the caloric requirements by age for the following patients:
Youths ages 12 to 18
P518

≈40 Kcal/kg/day (30–60)

15

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the protein requirements by age for the
following patients:
Children younger than 1 year?
P518

3 g/kg/day (2–3.5)

16

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the protein requirements by age for the
following patients:
Children ages 1 to 7?
P518

2 g/kg/day (2–2.5)

17

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the protein requirements by age for the
following patients:
Children ages 7 to 12?
P518

2 g/kg/day

18

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
What are the protein requirements by age for the
following patients:
Youths ages 12 to 18?
P518

1.5 grams/kg/day

19

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
How many calories are in
breast milk?
P518

20 Kcal/30 cc (same as most formulas)

20

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
PEDIATRIC BLOOD VOLUMES
Give blood volume per kilogram:
Newborn infant?
P518

85 cc

21

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
Infant 1–3 months of age?
P518

75 cc

22

PEDIATRIC IV FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
Child?
P518

70 cc

23

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
What is the number of
umbilical veins?
P519

1 (usually)

24

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
What is the number of
umbilical arteries?
P519

2

25

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
Which umbilical vessel
carries oxygenated blood?
P519

Umbilical vein

26

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
The oxygenated blood travels
through the liver to the IVC
through which structure?
P519

Ductus venosus

27

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
Oxygenated blood passes
from the right atrium to the
left atrium through which
structure?
P519

Foramen ovale

28

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
Unsaturated blood goes
from the right ventricle to
the descending aorta
through which structure?
P519

Ductus arteriosum

29

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
Define the overall fetal circulation.
P519 (picture)

(see Picture)

30

FETAL CIRCULATIONFETAL CIRCULATION
What are the ADULT structures of the following
fetal structures:
Ductus venosus?
P520

Ligamentum venosum