Transplant Surgery, C73 P671-690 Flashcards Preview

Section III Subspecialty Surgery P517 > Transplant Surgery, C73 P671-690 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transplant Surgery, C73 P671-690 Deck (189)
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1

Define the following terms:
Autograft
P671

Same individual is both donor and
recipient

2

Define the following terms:
Isograft
P671

Donor and recipient are genetically
identical (identical twins)

3

Define the following terms:
Allograft
P672

Donor and recipient are genetically
dissimilar, but of the same species

4

Define the following terms:
Xenograft
P672

Donor and recipient belong to different
species

5

Define the following terms:
Orthotopic
P672

Donor organ is placed in normal
anatomic position (liver, heart)

6

Define the following terms:
Heterotopic
P672

Donor organ is placed in a different site
than the normal anatomic position
(kidney, pancreas)

7

Define the following terms:
Paratopic
P672

Donor organ is placed close to original
organ

8

Define the following terms:
Chimerism
P672

Sharing cells between the graft and donor

9

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
What are histocompatibility
antigens?
P672

Distinct (genetically inherited) cell
surface proteins of the human leukocyte
antigen system (HLA)

10

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
Why are they important?
P672

They are targets (class I antigens) and
initiators (class II antigens) of immune
response to donor tissue (i.e.,
distinguishing self from nonself)

11

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
Which cells have class I
antigens?
P672

All nucleated cells (Think: class 1 = ALL
cells and thus “ONE for ALL”)

12

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
Which cells have class II
antigens?
P672

Macrophages, monocytes, B cells,
activated T cells, endothelial cells

13

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
What are the gene products
of MHC called in humans?
P672

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen)

14

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
What is the location of the
MHC complex?
P672

Short arm of chromosome 6

15

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
What is a haplotype?
P672

Combination of HLA genes on a
chromosome inherited from one parent;
therefore, two siblings have a 25%
chance of being “haploidentical”

16

BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
Does HLA matching matter
in organ transplantation?
P673

With recent improvements in
immunosuppression (i.e., cyclosporine),
the effect is largely obscured, but it still
does matter; the most important ones to
match in order to improve renal allograft
survival are HAL-B and HLA-DR

17

CELLS
T CELLS
What is the source?
P673

Thymus

18

CELLS
T CELLS
What is the function?
P673

Cell-mediated immunity/rejection

19

CELLS
T CELLS
What are the types?
P673

Th (CD4): helper T—help B cells
become plasma cells
Ts (CD8): suppressor T—regulate
immune response
Tc (CD8): cytotoxic T—kill cell by direct
contact

20

B CELLS
What is the function?
P673

Humoral immunity

21

B CELLS
What is the cell type that
produces antibodies?
P673

B cells differentiate into plasma cells

22

MACROPHAGE
What is it?
P673

Monocyte in parenchymal tissue

23

MACROPHAGE
What is its function?
P673

Processes foreign protein and presents it
to lymphocytes

24

MACROPHAGE
What is it also known as?
P673

Antigen-Presenting Cell (APC)

25

MACROPHAGE
Briefly describe the events
leading to antibody
production.
P673

1. Macrophage engulfs antigen and
presents it to Th cells; the
macrophage produces IL-1
2. Th cells then produce IL-2, and the
Th cells proliferate
3. Th cells then activate (via IL-4) B cells
that differentiate into plasma cells,
which produce antibodies against the
antigen presented

26

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
Who needs to be
immunosuppressed?
P674

All recipients (except autograft or isograft)

27

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
What are the major drugs
used for immunosuppression?
P674

Triple therapy: corticosteroids,
azathioprine, cyclosporine/tacrolimus

28

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
What are the other drugs?
P674

OKT3, ATGAM, mycophenolate

29

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
What is the advantage of
“triple therapy”?
P674

Employs three immunosuppressive drugs;
therefore, a lower dose of each can be used,
decreasing the toxic side effects of each

30

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
What is “induction therapy”?
P674

High doses of immunosuppressive drugs
to “induce” immunosuppression