Pelvis/LE - Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Clinical Anatomy - Pelvis/LE > Pelvis/LE - Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pelvis/LE - Knee Joint Deck (34):
1

Knee Joint

synovial joint
hinge joint
connects femur to tibia

2

Knee Joint Articulations (3)

lateral tibiofemoral
medial tibiofemoral
patellofemoral

3

Knee Stability (4)

muscles (most important)
ligaments
joint capsule
bony congruety

4

Patellar Tracking - Knee Extension

patella tracks superiorly

5

Patellar Tracking - Knee Flexion

patella tracks inferiorly

6

Anterior External Joint Capsule (3)

patella
patellar ligament
quadriceps tendon

7

Medial External Joint Capsule (1)

MCL

8

Posterior External Joint Capsule (1)

popliteal ligaments

9

Joint Capsule

thickened external fibrous layer
internal synovial membrane

10

Ligaments of Knee Joint (10)

LCL
MCL
ACL
PCL
medial meniscus
lateral meniscus
coronary ligaments
transverse ligaments
oblique popliteal ligament
arcuate popliteal ligament

11

Lateral Collateral Ligament

LCL aka fibular collateral ligament (FCL)
extends from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the lateral surface of the head of the fibula

12

Medial Collateral Ligament

MCL aka tibial collateral ligament (TCL)
extends from medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle and superior part of medial surface of the tibia

13

Oblique Popliteal Ligament

posterior to the medial tibial condyle and passes superolaterally to attach to the central part of the posterior aspect of the joint capsule

14

Arcuate Popliteal Ligament

arises from posterior aspect of the fibular head, passes superomedially over the tendon of the popliteus, and spreads over the posterior surface of the knee joint

15

Anterior Cruciate Ligament

ACL arises from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia and extends superiorly, posteriorly, and laterally to attach to the posterior part of the medial side of the lateral condyle
prevents anterior displacement of tibia

16

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

PCL arises from the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia and passes superiorly and anteriorly on the medial side of the ACL to attach to the anterior part of the lateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur
prevents posterior displacement of tibia
stronger than ACL

17

Medial Meniscus

C-shaped
broader posteriorly than anteriorally
firmly adheres to the deep surface of MCL
more secure = more stability
but more likely to tear

18

Lateral Meniscus

circular
smaller and more freely moveable than medial

19

Menisci

fibrocartilage plates
shock absorption
deepens concavity of bone
outer third - red zone

20

Coronary Ligaments

attach margins of the menisci to tibial condyles

21

Transverse Ligament

joins anterior edges of menisci allowing them to move together during knee movements

22

Plica

fold in the synovial lining

23

Screw Home Mechanism

open-chain: tibia laterally rotates to lock knee in on fixed femur (sitting knee ext)
close-chain: femur medially rotates to lock knee in on fixed tibia (standing from squat)
"hold the jar and screw the lid or hold the lid and screw the jar"

24

Q Angle

line drawn from ASIS to middle of patella to tibial tuberosity
normal Q angle (in slight flexion)
Male: 13 degrees
Female: 18 degrees

25

Varus

distal lever arm medial in relation to midline (>180 deg)

26

Valgus

distal lever arm lateral in relation to midline

27

Genu Varum

bowlegged

28

Genu Valgum

knock-kneed

29

Valgus Stress Test

tests MCL

30

Varus Stress Test

tests LCL

31

Bursa

fluid filled sacs that reduce friction around tendons
12 in knee

32

Normal ROM

-3 degrees extension (3 deg hyperextension)
155 flexion
*females more hyperextension

33

ROM Required for Normal Gait

0 degrees extension
70 degrees flexion

34

ROM Required for Sit to Stand

0 degrees extension
110 degrees flexion