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Flashcards in Pentoxifylline Deck (13):

What is the brand name of Pentoxifylline?



Pentoxifylline is a _________ derivative. 

Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative. 


In humans, the main indications for use of pentoxifylline are _______, ________ and ___________. 

In humans, the main indications for use of pentoxifylline are peripheral vascular disease, vasculitis and contact hypersensitivity


It can also be used to treat rogue conditions like necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, scleroderm, brown recluse spider bites and WOUND HEALING.


Please list the rheologic and immunomodulatory effects of pentoxifylline

  • Increased leukocyte deformability and chemotaxis
  • Decreased platelet aggregation 
  • Decreased leukocyte responsiveness to IL-1 and TNF-a
  • Decreased production of TNF-a from macrophages
  • Decreased production of IL-1, IL-4 and IL-12
  • Inhibition of T and B lymphocyte activation 
  • Decreased natural killer cell activity 
  • Inhibition of T-cell adherence to keratinocytes 
  • Increased RBC flexibility 
  • Inhibition of erythrocyte phosphodiesterase
  • Reduced blood viscosity


How does pentoxifylline impact wound healing?

Increased production of collagenase

Decreased production of collagen, fibronectin, glycosaminoglycans.


What are some uses of pentoxifylline in veterinary medicine?

Evidence based: canine familial dermatomyositis, allergic contact dermatitis, AD. 

Anecdotal/case reports: pinnal thrombovascular necrosis, ear margin dermatosis, vasculitis, rabies vaccine-related alopecia, EM, idiopathic mucinosis of the Chinese Shar-Pei, lupoid onychitis, vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus, epitheliotrophic lymphoma, acral lick dermatitis, greyhound vasculopathy, metatarsal fistulae of the GSD. 


What are the main side effects of pentoxifylline?

None reported in veterinary medicine.

In humans, they can have v/d, dizziness, headache - dose-dependent. 



Pentoxifylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.


Pentoxifylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.


Like other methylated xanthine derivatives, pentoxifylline is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor. 


You know that pentoxifylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Why does this matter?

A phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, commonly referred to as a PDE4 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

Mast cells, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, eosinophils and keratinocytes use PDE-4 as the predominant isoenzyme which is involved with cell activation and secretion. PDE-4 inhibitors inhibit eosinophil infiltration induced by cytokines.



What is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor? What is an example of a PDE-inhibitor that is used in veterinary dermatology?

A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).




Are there drug reactions to know about for pentoxifylline?

  • Platelet-Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Drugs
  • Theophylline
  • Warfarin



Pentoxifylline is broken down by the liver into 7 metabolites.

Metabolites I and V cause pharmacologic effects


Pentoxifylline is broken down by the liver into 7 metabolites.

Metabolites I and V cause pharmacologic effects


What is the bioavailability of pentoxifyline in dogs? horses?

Dogs - 50%

Horses - 68%