Period 1/2: 1491-1754 (Chapters 1-3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Period 1/2: 1491-1754 (Chapters 1-3) Deck (100):
1

Columbian Exchange

Contact between Europeans and the natives of America touched off a trans-atlantic trade in animals, plants, and germs

2

King Ferdinand and Isabelle

married 1469

Isabelle (queen of Castille) and ferndinand (king of Argon) fought against moors 1492

built an empire

3

Christopher Columbus

European Explorer
funded by Isabelle and Ferdinand to find India

launch of Granada

Power to the Roman Catholics

4

Hispaniola

An island where the first fort built by Columbus stood. It was named Fort Navidad.

5

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

moved the demarcation line a couple degrees to the left

spanish/portugul

6

Prodestant Reformation

Northern European countries revolt against the Pope

7

Indulgences

-

8

Martin Luther

1500
lived as a monk, was the best monk they had ever seen, but saw no sign of salvation, realized that there was a separation from god and the church, separated from the church, caused the revolution (prodestant)

9

Calvinism

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Drove to protestant religious motivation and thus the creation of Massachusetts Bay

10

Predestination

That god has selected those who will be saved even before they are born

11

Henry VIII and Church of England

1500
breaks away from the church

12

Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603)

pirated spanish ships

13

Spanish Armada

Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.

Was defeated by Englands army

14

The (Catholic) Counter Reformation

The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation.

15

Council of Trent

--

16

Ignatius Loyola

-

17

King James I

-

18

Charles I

-

19

English Civil War

-

20

Oliver Cromwell

-

21

Navigation Acts

in response to the triangular trade
Charles II implemented these in 1660

22

James II

-

23

Glorious Revolution

-

24

William of Orange and Mary

-

25

English Bill of Rights

-

26

Constitutional/Limited Monarchy

-

27

John Locke

helped start the scientific revolution

wrote a book describing the potential of the human brain (showing that it is our job to fill our brains with knowledge (not predestined))

28

Jamestown

1607 virginia Company
charter of King James

29

Tabacco

-

30

Head-Right System

1618 in Jamestown, Virginia. It was used as a way to attract new settlers to the region and address the labor shortage. With the emergence of tobacco farming, a large supply of workers was needed. New settlers who paid their way to Virginia received 50 acres of land.

31

Virginia House of Burgesses

wealthy land owners chose representatives to go to James Town

32

Indentured Servants

-

33

Bacon's Rebellion (1676)

Mostly White labor force (servants) in Chesapeake but with this Blacks become the worker of choice
(Slaves)

34

Chesapeake Slavery

mainly white servants into 1700

35

Puritans

The Puritans were a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.

36

Mayflower Compact

Begining of the constitution

37

Plymouth

1620
seperatists
Bradford, Standish, and Winthrop-

38

John Winthrop

English Puritan lawyer
founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in what is now New England after Plymouth Colony.
His writings and vision of the colony as a Puritan "city upon a hill" dominated New England colonial development, influencing the governments and religions of neighboring colonies.

39

City Upon a Hill

Whinthrop

40

Roger Williams

English Protestant theologian who was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. In 1636, he began the colony of Providence Plantation, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Williams started the first Baptist church in America, the First Baptist Church of Providence.[1]

Williams was also a student of Native American languages, an early advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans, and arguably the first abolitionist in North America, having organized the first attempt to prohibit slavery in any of the British American colonies.

41

Rhode Island Colony

The land that became the English Colony was first home to the Narragansett, as well as some other Native American tribes such as the Nipmuc. European contact began by the Dutch, and was initially claimed by the Colony of New Netherlands. English settlement along the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Colony. Once the English claimed the area of New England, Dutch influence was particularly withdrawn from the area, though still remained after that; arguably through the name Roode Eysland, which was later anglicized to Rhode Island. Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams in 1636-

42

Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson, born Anne Marbury (1591–1643), was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters.

43

Antinominianism

Antinomianism, which means "against the law," was a centuries-old heresy whose basic tenet held that Christians were not bound by traditional moral law, particularly that of the Old Testament. Instead, man could be guided by an inner light that would reveal the proper forms of conduct.

44

Half-Way Covenant

The Half-Way Covenant was a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose.

45

Massachusetts Bay Company

created because of English Civil war, more then 15,000 people came

46

Maryland

-

47

Middle Colonies

-

48

Quaker

-

49

Lord Baltimore

-

50

Pennsylvania

-

51

Carolina

Heavily Dependent on Slaves

52

South Carolina Slave Codes

White population was depudised to control the slaves. Became White vs. Black like never before.

53

Georgia

Penal Colony established to empty the Jails in England (people who were in debt were criminals)

54

James Oglethorpe

Founder of Georgia (penal colony)
Against Slavery

55

Louis XIV

-

56

Colbert

-

57

Mercantilism

-

58

Queen Anne's War

-

59

Treaty of Utrecht

-

60

Louisiana

-

61

Stono Rebellion of 1739

20 slaves armed themselves and killed, burned, and began a march towards Florida (seeking freedom)

Made Slave Codes even harsher

62

Scientific Revolution

Happened centuries before the colonial history
John Locke and Isaac Newton

63

Isaac Newton

hard science
questioned all of these things and led to the beginning of the scientific revolution

64

The Enlightenment

late 1600s- 1700s
Came before the Great Awakening
Deism and Ben Franklin
to Observe, Collect, and Utilize information
Success is self perpetuated

65

Deism

The belief that God has created the universe but remains apart from it and permits his creation to administer itself through natural laws. Deism thus rejects the supernatural aspects of religion, such as belief in revelation in the Bible, and stresses the importance of ethical conduct.

66

Ben Franklin

Almanac, brings scientific thinking and religion together, implemented the ideas of Reason, Data, and Improving upon ones life.

67

The Great Awakening

George Whitfield, New lights vs. Old Lights

individualism

liberation

rebellion

came after the Enlightenment

68

New Lights

Ministers of the Prodestant Church who delivered their sermons through more animated, performed manners

69

Almanac

farmers used it, helped Enlightenment, made farmers think scientifically

70

Royal Colony

A colony under direct control of the King's government

71

Virginia Company

A joint-stock company
Helped to create Jamestown (first permanent English Colony)

72

Great Migration

When a civil war in England in the 1630's drove more than 15,000 settlers to the Massachusetts Bay Colony

73

Asiento System

Brought African slaves to Americas because the native work force had been wiped out by disease

Spanish had to pay a tax to their king for each slave they imported to the Americas

74

Encomienda System

panish King would give grants of land and natives to individual Spaniards

75

Old Lights

traditional/orthodox minister of the Protestant church

76

Anglican Church

official in Georgia, both Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and a part of New York; liked because sermons were shorter, descriptions of hell less frightening, and amusements were less scorned

77

George Whitfield

preached in field or streets

was kicked out of England because of his progressive ideas

didn't need a church to preach

known for his powerful, yet pleasant voice (spoke to 1000's
of people without a microphone); 4/5 of American population heard him speak at least once; always preaching

did not like the enlightenment because he thought that know could not replace god

78

Incas

A vast empire in South America
Advanced Culture
Heavily Dependent on Potatoes

79

1491

Eve of Columbus Exchange
Spain/Portugal/European competition to colonies

80

1517

Martin Luther creates his own religion

81

1530

-

82

1558-1603

Elizabeth the first starts the Anglican Church

83

1588

defeat the spanish Armada

84

1607

Founding of James Town

85

1676

Bacon Rebellion

86

Salutary Neglect

Beneficial Neglect
"The Kings overseeing over the Colonies"

87

1640s

Civil War: (parliament vs. the supporters of the king)

88

1660`

Oliver Cronwell (the protector)
Charles I son is crowned (Charles II)

89

Charles II

tried to be the Absolute Monarch
Baptized his son (James II) as a catholic
is thrown out of England

90

1712

Slave Code

91

1739

Stono Rebellion

92

French Exploration Claims

1524 interests in exploration

93

Dutch Exploration Claims

1600
founded hudson after explorer Henry Hudson

94

Henry Hudson

1609 Dutch Explorer

95

Spanish Settlement in North America

Florida, New Mexico, Texas, California

96

Bartolome de la Casas

Spanish priest who fought for the rights of the Natives

laws of 1542

97

Laws of 1542

helped to protect end Indian Slavery and began to end the economienda system

98

Valladoid Debate

1550
Casas vs. Juan Gines de Sepuvelda

99

Original English/ native policy

coexisted, but soon were driven away by the savage ways

100

John Calvin

believed in predestination
took power away from the church