Period 3 (1754-1800) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Period 3 (1754-1800) Deck (163):
1

What were the main empires at war and what were they fighting for?

Great Britain vs. Spain and France
fighting for supremacy of West Indies, Canada, and Colonial Trade

2

King Williams War

1689-1697
British tried to capture Quebec from the French, but the (F) and (I) forces burned british settlements

3

Queen Annes War

(1702-1713)
After King Williams War
Britain succeeded in gaining Novia Scottia from France and trading rights with Spaniards

4

King George War

(1744-1748)
British War but the colonist faced the attacks from Spain and French
Oglethorpe fought and colonial militia fought against the attacks and captures Louisbourg

5

Why were the colonists mad after K. George War?

Because Britain gave back Louisbourg (colonial victory) in order to have trading rights with India

6

What was the difference between the French and Indian wars in comparison to the prior 3 wars (King George, Queen Annes, and King Williams)

FI started in America and spread to Europe

7

What is the difference between the 7-year war and the FI Indian war?

SAME WAR
FI was fought in America
7yr was fought in Europe

8

What provoked the British to wage war during the FI war

French had begun to build chain of forts along the Ohio River in order to halt the expansion of British colonies

9

How did the British adress the expansion of France on the Ohio River?

sent a small militia under the command of GW who eventually had to surrender to the superior force of the FI

10

When did Washingtons Milita first strike in the FI war?

Sumer of 1754

11

Who was General E. Braddock

leader of the second attack on Ft. Duquesne

12

Where was Ft. Duquesne

Pittsburg
Controlled by the FI at the beginning of the war

13

The Albany Plan of Union year?

1754

14

What was the purpose of the Albany Plan of Union?

to help develop a system in which the intercolonial governments could recruit troops and collect taxes from the colonies

15

who wrote the Alb. Plan Union

Ben Franklin

16

Who was William Pitt

British PM 1770s (during the FI war)

17

which fort did Britain take back in 1758?

Louisbourg

18

What was surrendered to General James Wolf in 1759

Quebec

19

What area was taken by the (B) 1760

Montreal

20

What resulted from the previous B victories in 1763?

the peace of paris

21

The Peace of Paris in terms of B

gained Spanish Florida and French Canada

22

Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War

Unchallenged British supremacy in NA
Dominant B naval power
American colonies no longe rhad to face the threats of French attacks
Changed the views between B and C

23

Post FI war B Opinion

C had bad military, poorly trained, unable and unwilling to defend newly gained frontiers

24

Post FI war C Opinion

independent mindset
realized they could defend themselves

25

post FI war British Policy

end of salutary neglect
increased control
increased taxes

26

Year of Pon Rebell

1763

27

Reason Pont. Rebel

Indians were angered by the growing W. movement of the C

28

Pont. Rebel.

B put troops in to end the violence

29

Proclamation of 1763

prohibited movement past App. Mount. for C
increased anger in C

30

3 acts of Lord G. Greenville

Sugar Act
Quartering
Stamp

31

Greenville

British PM

32

Sugar Act

1764
raised duties on foreign sugar and luxuries
increased mandating of Navigation Acts

33

Quartering Act

1765
required colonists to let soldiers in their homes

34

Stamp Act

1765
put stamps on paper goods in order to collect direct tax

35

Patrick Henry

Virginia Lawyer when he stood up at the house of Burgasse and talked about the rights of people-
no taxation w/o representation

36

James Otis

from Massachusetts
started rebellion against Stamp Act

37

Stamp- Act Congress

Reps. came together in NY and decided that only state governments could decide when to tax

38

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

society that used tar and feathers (violence) and destroyed stamps in order to fight against the stamp act

39

What finally made the Stamp Act go away

when colonist boycotted B goods

40

importance of 1766

replaced B PM (Greenville)
repeal of the Stamp Act
Declaratory Act

41

Declaration Act

1766
stated the B had the right to make laws and tax the C no matter what

42

The Townshed Acts

1767
permitted search of C homes for smuggled goods
B mandated and controlled C salaries
increased tax on goods (tea glass and paper)

43

letters from a Farmer

1768
Dickison
said that this the townshed acts were still a form of taxation with out representation

44

Massachusetts Circular Letter

1768
Otis and Adams
send to C legislat. that encouraged the colonists to petition

45

How did the king react to the Massachusetts Circular Letter and letters from a farmer?

increased # of B in Colonies and threatened to dissolve the colonial legals.

46

Repeal of the Town Shed Act?

1770 bc of new B PM (Fredrick) bc of the colonial boycott
however kept tax on tea

47

Boston Masacre

B guards killed harassing C and were tried

48

Committees of Correspondence

Sam Adams in 1770-1773 proliferated the idea that the British were taking rights away from C

49

The Gaspee

was a ship that patrolled the ports and had caught C smugglers. 1772, a groups of colonists dressed as American Indians destroyed the ship.

50

Tea Act

1773 to help fund the British East India Comp. made the tea (with tax included) cheaper then Dutch Tea

51

Boston Tea Party

radicals dumped tea into the Boston Harbor to show that they would not be misrepresented.

52

Intolerable Acts

In reaction to the Boston Tea Party 1774
The port Act
The Mass Gov Act
The Admin of Just Act
Expansion of Quatering Act

53

Port Act 1774

closed port until tea was payed for

54

Mass Gov Act 1774

reduced C power (legals.)

55

Admin of Justice 1774

allowed royal government to be tried in GB instead of C

56

Quatering Act in 1774

Allowed stay in PRIVATE homes

57

Quebec Act 1774

extended the boundary of Quebec
Roman Cahtolisism

58

The Era of Enlightenment

peaked mid 1700s (18th)
god had established natural laws in creating the universe
reason science respect for humaniity

59

Continental Congress #1

1774
all colonies besides Geogia sent rep. to Philadelphia to responde to Britains alarming threats to their liberty

waned to change British Policy

60

Radical Delegates of CC#1

Patrick Henry (virg)
Sam Adams (Mass)
John Adam (Mass)

61

Moderate Delegates of CC#1

GW (Virg)
John Dickinson (Penn)

62

Conservatives Delegates of CC#1

John Jay (NY)
Galloway (Penn)

63

Galloway Plan

1. Suffolk Resolves
2. Declaration fo Rights and Grievances
3. Contenentail Association

64

Soffolk Resolves

repeal all intolerable acts

65

Dec. of Rights and Greive.

king to recognize the ways that he had disrepected colonists

66

Continental association

a group of colonists to enforce

67

Lexington and Concord

1775 Thomas Gage leads British to seize but minute men warn the militia and fight against Britain

68

Minute men

Revere and Dawes

69

Battle of Bunkerhill

1775 british conquer the hill but the C hurt the B army

70

CC #2

1775
NE want to seperate
M want to reform
Declaration of causes and ness. to take arms
create C military

71

Colonial Military of 1775

raid/attack colonial ships
GW of army
and Arndold to raid Quebec

72

Peace Efforts of 1775

Olive Branch Petition

73

Olive Branch Petition

pledged loyality and in return that the king respect and secure protection of the colonies liberties (this petition was rejected)

74

Prohibitory Act

in reaction to the Olive Branch Petition (claimed the colonists to be in a state of rebellion)

75

Thomas Paine

1776 "common sense" need to break form B

76

"Common Sense"

logic
big body can't be ruled by little body
loyal to injustice is dumb

77

Dec. Independence

1776
R.H Lee of Virginia introduced a resolution to become independent

78

Patriots in the Rev. War

soldiers were mainly on volunteer
poorly equipped

79

African Americans in Rev. War

B and then C promised to free AA who fought

80

Peter Salem

Rev. War. Black. Hero

81

Tories

Loyalists

82

Tories in the Rev. War

fought with B

83

William Franklin

son of B Franklin
Torie
last Royal Governor of NJ

84

Tories after the war

went to B or Canada

85

American Indians in Rev War

against the Colonists

86

1775-1777

New York, Philadelphia, Valley Forge (C terrible time)

87

Valley Forge

winter with GW and his patriots

88

problems form 1775-1777

british occupied the ports... inflation, poverty, no goods...

89

Battle of Saratoga

1777NY, Beat Borgoyne and gained backing of France

90

1778

France allies with Colonies against B

91

1778 King of France

Louis XVI

92

Absolute Monarch

king (complete control)

93

British reaction to increased colonial power

concentrated NY (removed themselves from Philadelphia)

94

1778-1779) Colonial Victories

Clark leads the capture of Illinois forts

95

1780 British Policy

British focus on the Southern States (many loyalists)

96

Battle of York Town

Chesapeake Bay
French backed
C wins over B

97

1783 Importance

Treaty of Paris

98

Treaty of Paris

1783
1. B recognize C indpendence
2. Mississippi River war the boundary of W expansion
3. C have fishing rights in Canada
4. C have to pay the debts to B

99

1777 Colonial Government

state and congress

100

State government

representatives
constitutions

101

Liberals

liberty and rights

102

COnserv.

Need for Law and Order

103

Important aspects of Constitutions in 1777

rights, separation of power, voting

104

Constitution in 1777

was made into the Aricles of Confederation

105

Articles of Confederation

Country Consitution

106

Congress

Rep.
I vote per state
Admen art. 13/13
Vote 9/13

107

Powers of Congress

COULD war, treaties, diplomatic rep, borrow money
COULD NOT tax

108

Taxation in the colonies

was voted on by the States

109

Land Ordinance

1785
surveying/selling western lands
public education was very important

110

NW Land Ordinance

1787
set rules for creating new states
limited independent government in these regions
no slaves

111

Problems with the Articles

paper $ worthless
could not tax
on global respect
B and Spain tried to take advantage

112

Shays Rebellion

1786 farmers rebel against high sales tax, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper $ (which was successful until they tried to steal guns from the Springfield Army in 1787)

113

Annapolis Convention

1786
after meeting at GW house five of the states came to talk

114

Philadelphia Convention

1787
all states (besides rhode island) to create a constitution

115

Framers of the Constitution

55 delagates
white male lawyers

116

George Washinton in the Philadelphia Convention

chairsperson

117

Ben Farnklin in the Philadelphia Convention

calm old wise men

118

James Madison

Father of the Constitution

119

Other important people in the Philadelphia Convention

Hamilton Morris Dickinson

120

Nationalists

Madison Harrison wanted to draft a ew constitution

121

Virginia Plan

Madison
favored big states
proportional

122

New Jersey Plan

small states
1 share

123

Conneticute Plan
Great Compromise

Sherman
Senete and House representation

124

Senate

1 vote

125

House

Proportional

126

Slavery in the Constitution

3/5 a person
garunteed 20 more years of slavery

127

Trade 1777

NE states wanted central government to regulate trade
S was scared that of export tax
there fore commercial compromise

128

Commercial Compromise

Congress regulate and prohibit export tax

129

Federalists Leaders

GW, Franklin, Madison, Hamilton

130

Federalists Arguments

Strong Centeral Government

131

Federalists thought that (in regards to const)

didn't need a bill of rights
Articles of Con. suck

132

A-Fed Leaders

Mason, Henry, Winthrop, Hancock, Clinton

133

A-Fed Arguments

central government hurts liberty
individual rights

134

The Federalist Papers

Jay, Madison, Hamilton

135

What helped to get the rest of the states on board with the constitution (A-Fed)

adding a bill of rights

136

What happened 1789?

GW President

137

In the cabinet of 1789?

Jefferson/SOS
Hamilton/SOT
Knox/SOW
Randolph/Gen

138

Mt. Vernon Conference

George Washington hosted this at his home in VA (1785); VA, MD, PA, and DE reps agreed that problems were serious enough with the Articles to prompt further discussions at a later meeting in Annapolis, MD, where the states might be represented

139

Electoral College System

delegates assign to each state a number of electors equal to the total of that state's representatives and senators; instituted because the delegates at Philadelphia feared that too much democracy might lead to mob rule

140

Judiciary Act (1789)

Established a Supreme Court with one chief justice and 5 associate justices; empowered to rule on constitutionality of decisions made by state courts; act also provided for a system of 13 district courts and three circuit courts of appeals

141

National debt

Hamilton proposed to pay off the national debt at face value and have the federal government assume the war debts of the states

142

Infant industries

Hamilton proposed to protect the young nation's new and developing industries by imposing high tariffs on imported goods

143

National bank

Hamilton proposed to create a national bank for depositing govt funds and for printing banknotes that would provide the basis for a state US currency

144

Tariffs;

excise taxes to raise enough revenue to pay govt debts, Hamilton got Congress to pass these on certain goods (i.e. Whiskey)

145

French Revolution

When it broke out, France and US had an alliance with French monarchy but not the revolutionary republic; agreed with France and France's side especially against Britain

146

Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)

Washington believed the young nation was not strong enough to go to war and as a result, he proclaimed neutrality in the French conflict

147

"Citizen" Edmund Genet

Objecting to Washington's policy, Genet, the French ambassador to the US, broke all the normal rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to the American people in support of the French cause

148

Jay Treaty

(1794) US was tired of British searches and seizures of American ships and impressments of seamen into the British navy; after a year of talks, he made a treaty with British where they agreed to evacuate Western frontier posts, but said nothing of British seizures of American merchant ships

149

Pinckney Treaty (1795)

Thomas Pinckney, US Ambassador to Spain, negotiated a treaty with Spain to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to America

150

Right of deposit

ability for Americans to transit cargoes to New Orleans without paying duties to Spanish govt

151

Battle of Fallen Timbers

General Wayne defeats Shawnee, Wyandot and other Native Americans in this battle in NW Ohio; the next year, the Chiefs of the defeated peoples agreed to the Greenville Treaty where they surrendered the Ohio Territory for settlement

152

Whisky Rebellion

(1794) PA, farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey and they attacked revenue collects; Washington federalized 15000 state militiamen and put them under Hamilton's command, scaring the farmers and ending the rebellion

153

Public Land Act

(1796) established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices

154

Federalist Era

1790s were dominated by two Federalist figures around which political parties formed: Hamilton and Jefferson; Hamilton's federalists supposed his financial programs (loose interpretation of Constitution but strong central government)

155

Democratic-Republican party

supported Jefferson (anti Hamilton programs); southern state support and western frontier, whose political platform protected states' rights and strict containment of federal power

156

Washington's farewell Address

called for Americans to not get involved in European affairs, no permanent alliances, no political parties, and no sectionalism

157

two-term tradition

Washington left after two terms of office and set a precedent that was followed by all until FDR

158

John Adams

Federalist candidate, and winner by 3 electoral votes; Jefferson was VP because he had 2nd most votes

159

XYZ Affair

when Americans were angered by prospect of US merchant ships being taken by the French, emissaries were sent to France by Adams and French Ministers X, Y, and Z requested bribes before negotiations could be had; delegates were livid and wanted war but Adams diffused the situation and sent new ministers

160

Alien Act

authorized president to deport aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in a time of war

161

Sedition Act

made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed heavy penalties on those who broke the law

162

KY and VA resolutions

KY (Jefferson) and VA (Madison), which declared that the states had entered into a "compact" in forming the national government and therefore, if any act of the federal government broke the compact, a state could nullify federal law

163

Revolution of 1800

in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, and taxes, Jefferson won the election of 1800 and it was called a revolution because it was a successful transfer from one political party to another done without violence (Federalist to Democratic-Republican)