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AU 15- Periodontology Exam 2 > Periodontal Indices > Flashcards

Flashcards in Periodontal Indices Deck (47):
1

What are the 5 characteristics that are assessed regarding inflammation?

color
texture
bleeding
exudate
plaque

2

There is always _______ in the gingival sulcus, but when it becomes _______ it indicates an underlying problem.

transudate
exudate

3

_________ + __________ = Identification of Disease

Assessment of Inflammation
Loss of Periodontal Tissue Support

4

What three characteristics are evaluated when studying periodontal tissue support?

Probing Depths
Clinical Attachment Levels
Radiographic Evaluation

5

Following initial treatment, a patient will be instructed to come back for one of three things based on the assessment of periodontium. What are these three circumstances?

1. Recall
2. Periodontal Maintenance
3. Referral to Periodontist

6

The Plaque Index assesses the amount of plaque at the _____ _____, examining the same anatomical units as the GI.

Gingival Margin

7

Using the plaque index, a probe can be used to decipher between ____ and _____; however, visible plaque is scored a _____ or ______.

0, 1
2, 3

8

The Plaque index can be applied to a ____, ______, or _____.

tooth
subject
population

9

True or False: the Turesky Modified Plaque Index uses disclosing dye to examine facial and lingual surfaces.

True

10

True or False: The Turesky Modified Plaque Index is the most frequently used index in clinical trials and the Volpe-Manhold is the most used calculus index used in longitudinal studies.

True

11

*The O'Leary Plaque Index provides a ______ of tooth surfaces ______ for plaque.

percentage
positive

12

*The NIDR Calculus Index ranks calculus from ____ to ____. Describe the difference between levels.

0 to 2
0 = calculus absent
1 = supragingival calculus only, no subgingival
2 = supra and subgingival calculus

13

*Using the Gingival Index (GI) [aka: Loe & Sillness], inflammation is assessed in ____ distinct gingival areas. What are these areas?

4
distofacial papilla
facial margin
mesiofacial papilla
lingual gingival margin
(basically....the margin around the tooth)

14

How is the GI scored?

Inflammation is scored 0 to 3 in the four areas:
normal = 0
1 = no bleeding, inflamed, red
2= moderate inflammation, redness, BoP
3= spontaneous bleeding upon brushing, eating, or sleeping

15

_____ is the tendency to bleed 15 seconds following retraction of a probe from the periodontal pocket.

BoP

16

Bleeding on probing is score as either ___ which indicates presence of blood, or _____ which indicates absence.

1 if present
0 if absent

17

BoP is a valid indicator of periodontal _____ but it is a poor indicator of periodontal ______.

stability
breakdown

18

Which probe do we typically use for Periodontal Screening?

the "Michigan-O" with Williams Markings

19

Attachment level = ______ mm + ______ mm

probing depth + recession
(recession is written as a positive number, inflammation as a negative)

20

For periodontal probing, how many surfaces are examined per tooth? What type of force is used? Correct _____ is important.

6 surfaces
light force
correct angulation

21

What is the correct angulation for interproximal probing (after reaching the contact point with parallel probe, you angulate this much)?

15 degrees

22

The ESI is a _______ index that relates disease to two characteristics: ______ and ______.

Periodontal index
extent and severity

23

What is the difference between extent and severity?

Extent = proportion of tooth sites showing destruction
Severity = amount of attachment loss at the sites (avg.)

24

Using the PDI system, how many areas of the tooth are examined and how are they examined?

4 areas using a perio probe

25

Describe the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs and how scores are recorded.

CPITN uses a specially designed probe to index in under-served parts of the world.
The mouth is divided into 6 sections (sextants): the worst score of each sextant is recorded (gives 6 scores per subject). Then the worst overall score will determine the treatment needs

26

The CPITN is scored ____ to ____ and then given one of four codes to distinguish level of treatment needed.

Score 0 to 4
Codes:
0 = no treatment
I = improve oral hygiene
II = I + professional scaling
III = I + II + complex treatment plan

27

Which Periodontal Index do we use in the clinics?

PSR (Periodontal Screening and Recording)****
(it is endorsed by the ADA)

28

*PSR is a ____ and ____ way to screen patients for periodontal disease and summarizes necessary information with ______ ______.

rapid and effective
minimal documentation

29

What is special about the PSR probe?

there is a dark- colored band that indicates a 5.5mm depth when covered

30

Scoring for PSR is done per _____.

sextant

31

What are the PSR scores? How do they relate to the colored band, calculus, and BoP?

0 = colored band is visible,no calculus, no BoP
1 = colored band is visible, no calculus, but +BoP
2 = colored band is visible, +calculus, may have BoP (+/-)
3 = colored band partly seen, +/-calculus, +/- BoP
4 = colored area not visible, +/- calculus, +/- BoP

32

Using PSR, what is the rule for charting?

Divide the mouth into six sections: Quickly find the highest score per sextant.
*if one sextant has a score greater than 2...chart only that 1/6 of the mouth fully
*if two or more sextants have a score greater than 2...chart the entire mouth fully!

33

What are the six benefits to PSR?

speed
early detection
simple
cost effective
recording ease
risk management (documentation/proof of evaluation)

34

What are the limitations of PSR?

designed to DETECT only
some need more comprehensive exams
doesn't work for reduced periodontium or recession
designed for use in ADULTS

35

Why are screening indices different for peri-implant tissues?

Implants are circular, there are no B-L or M-D surfaces to evaluate. Use Modifed PLi and Modified Gi

36

What is reliability?

ability to measure a condition in the same subject repeatedly and obtain the same score each time (reproducible)

37

What is validity?

the sensitivity (+ when +) and specificity (- when -) of a diagnostic tool

38

What are three potential examiner biases?

1. Halo Effect
2. Leniency/Severity Error
3. Central Tendency Error

39

What is the Halo Effect?

the examiner's general impression of a target distorts his/her perception of the target on specific dimensions

40

What is the Central Tendency Error? How does this differ from the leniency/severity error?

the examiner's reluctance to rate at either the positive or negative extremes so all scores cluster in the middle
(L/S Error: simply just the examiner's personality = tendency to be lenient or severe)

41

How do we attempt to eliminate clinician error?

Calibration and Training

42

How do we determine the validity of a diagnostic test?

Predictive Value Positive (PVP) and Predictive Value Negative (PVN). Basically: its the
"real +" over the "assigned +" = PVP
"real -" over the "assigned -" = PVN

43

What is Predictive Value Positive (PVP)?

the probability of disease in a subject with a positive test result

44

What is the Predictive Value Negative (PVN)?

the probability of not having the disease when the test is negative

45

Does the O'leary index use disclosing solution?

yes

46

How many surfaces are studied per tooth using the O'leary index?

4

47

How do you calculate the amount of plaque using the O'Leary index?

total #sites with plaque / total #sites in the mouth