Flashcards in Perioperative Fluid and Electrolytes Deck (81)
what is Total Body Water (TBW)?
60% of total body weight
TBW is broken down into IntraCellular Volume ___ and ExtraCellular Volume (ECV)____.
Blood volume is ___ % of TBW
Extracellular contains primarily what?
intracellular fluid is mainly waht?
most important osmotically active colloid in ECV and is normally 4g/L in serum vs. only 1g/L in interstitial fluid.
normal level of Na
Normal level of Cl
Normal level of K
normal level of albumin
what is the normal water loss per day
2.5-3 L / day
what is the breakdown of water losses per day
urine 1-1.5 L
150 cc GI
1 L insensible losses (sweat, respiration)
We generally required how many mEq/Kg/day of Na and Cl?
we generally require less than __ mEq/Kg/day of K
what is the 4-2-1 rule?
Appropriate maintenance fluids
4 ccs per hour for the first 10 kg of weight
2 cc's per hour for the next 10 kgs
1 cc per hour for every kg beyond that
what is in normal saline?
created the right concentration of salt in water at the same concentration as their blood (330 mEq/L)
why does D5 1/2 NS not lyse the cells?
added 50 grams of sugar is enough to bring it up to same osmolarity as the blood
what does lactated ringer's contain.
(much closer analog of normal body's makeup)
for high volumes should you use LR or NS?
what fluids do you use for life saving measures?
what are some scenarios where you lose more fluids?
long open abd cases
where is albumin found
4 mg/dl in blood
1 in extracellular fluids
what is the problem with giving albumin
a lot of it is in the interstitial space and is higher there
when the inflammation stops, the albumin is trapped in that space, so it is hard to unload the water in the third space
what are the goals with fluid resucitation
HR in double digits
urine out put of 1/2 cc/kg/hr
for child low end of normal is 1 cc/kg/hr
He says that pt X is diabetic but has been placed on D5 NS and his sugars are high...would you change it to just NS please?
No, need some sort of glucose so they don't undergo gluconeogenesis. giving dextrose allows them to avoid this (only 600 calories a day) keeps them from breaking down muscle.
Nurse says that pt Y has a BMP with a glucose of 488. What would you like him to do?
Ask if patient is awake (need to know if in DKA)
have them recheck their glucose on other arm (often did a draw above the IV site
a drop a D5NS would read what on a glucometer?
a high K is associated with what?
arrhythmias and cardiac death
what is a common reason for a high K reading?
hemolysis of blood during draw