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Flashcards in peripheral nerves Deck (28):
1

Name the 4 major functions of Schwann cells

1) phagocytosis
2) myelination
3) NMJ
4) basal lamina path for regeneration

2

what structure lies within endoneurium

nerve fiber (axon + schwann cell)

3

what structure lies within perineurium

a fascicle (a bunch of nerve fibers)

4

what structure lies with epineurium

a peripheral nerve

5

which spinal nerves exit the spinal cord rostral to their corresponding vertebral bodies

C1-C7
C8 exits below C7 and above T1

6

what is central chromatolysis

fragmentation and dispersal of Nissl bodies and displacement of the nucleus (eccentric nucleus)
seen in Wallerian Degeneration

7

what is a pseudoneuroma

swirls of regenerating axons trapped in scar tissue
occurs when axons don't make contact with Schwann cells of distal stump

8

what are the findings of a radiculopathy

1) characteristic shooting pain
2) dermatomal sensory loss
3) myotomal weakness

9

what are the etiologies of radiculopathy

herneated nucleus pulposus
bony spur
tumor
abscesses
hematoma

10

what are the 2 most common radiculopathies

C7, S1

11

What are the associated pain, sensory loss, motor loss and reflex loss with a C7 radiculopathy

Pain: neck, lateral arm, forearm, digits 2-3
Sensory: digit 3
Motor: triceps, radial flexors and extensors
Reflex: triceps

12

What are the associated pain, sensory loss, motor loss and reflex loss with an S1 radiculopathy

Pain: posterior thigh and calf, sole of foot
Sensory: posterior calf, lateral foot
Motor: plantar flexors and invertors
Reflex: ankle

13

describe and give lesion location for Erb's Palsy

Location: C5, C6
waiter's tip shoulder problem

14

describe and give the lesion location for Klumpke's Palsy

Location: C8, T1
claw hand

15

describe the pain, weakness etiology and treatment of idiopathic brachial neuropathy

also called Parsonage-Turner syndrome
Pain: shoulder/axilla
Weakness: shoulder girdle, hands
Etiology: vaccinations, inflammation, surgical positioning
Treatment: steroids, physical therapy

16

describe diabetic amyotrophy

1) intense pain in thigh
2) ischemia to vasa nervosum
3) lumbosacral plexopathy
4) motor nerve problem with secondary muscle atrophy
5) unilateral, but other leg usually follows
6) absent patellar reflex

17

what are the 5 major upper compressive mononeuropathy

1) axillary
2) median
3) ulnar
4) radial
5) musculocutaneous

18

describe axillary neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

deltoid motor and sensory loss, with deltoid atrophy

19

describe musculocutaneous neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

Motor: biceps
Sensory: lateral forearm
hypertrophy most common cause of compression

20

describe median neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

carpal tunnel
Motor: LOAF muscles
Sensory: first 3 + lateral 4th
tinnel and phalens sign

21

describe ulnar neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

Motor: hypothenar and interossei muscles, flexor carpi ulnaris
Sensory: 5 and medial 4

22

describe radial neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

Motor: wrist drop
Sensory: dorsum of hand over 1st web space
saturday night palsy
compression at spiral groove of humerus

23

describe lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

meralgia paresthetica
Motor: NONE
Sensory: anterolateral thigh
pain and parasthesias
constriction at inguinal ligament (fat or tight clothes)

24

describe femoral neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

Motor: Psoas, quadriceps femoris
Sensory:anteromedial thigh and leg
etiology: tumor, hematoma, abscess, trauma

25

obturator neuropathy

Motor: hip adductors
Sensory: medial thigh
etiology: prolonged labor

26

describe sciatic neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

Motor: hamstrings all muscles of leg and foot
Sensory: poster lateral leg and entire foot
etiology: hip replacement, injections, tumor

27

describe paroneal neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

motor: ankle dorsiflexion and eversion
sensory: lateral leg
etiology: weight loss and leg crossing
foot drop

28

describe tibial neuropathy, including motor and sensory loss

Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Motor: intrinsic foot muscles
Sensory: sole of foot