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Flashcards in peripheral pain Deck (30):
1

2 types of receptors involved in pain transduction

TRP (transient receptor potential) receptors
ENaCS (epithelial sodium channels)

2

many TRP receptors have ____ characteristics: responding to ____ stimuli

polymodal; thermal, chemical, and mechanical

3

epithelial sodium channels may play a role in _____ (this is speculative)

mechanical nociception

4

vanilloid receptor (TRPV1 or V1) responds to:

1. capsaicin
2. heat (42degreeC)
3. protons

5

stimulation of vanilloid receptor results in _____

influx of cations (Na+ and Ca++)

6

response of c-fibers (A-delta) to chemical stimuli

chemesthesis

7

chemesthesis evolved as part of a chemical _____; can initiate expulsive reflexes such as ___ or ____

defensive mechanism; coughing; sneezing

8

chemesthesis also produces both ____ and ____ sensations

painful and non-painful (such as burning, tingling (carbonation), astringency, pungency)

9

branches of trigeminal nerve with prominent chemesthesis

nasal: ethmoid n. (branch of ophthalmic)
oral: posterior palatine and nasopalatine nn. (branches of maxillary) & lingual n. and buccal n. (branches of mandibular)

10

both olfaction and chemesthesia can be activated ____ and _____

orthonasally; retronasally

11

olfaction is via _____

olfactory receptors

12

nasal chemesthesis produced by:

1. TRP receptors on ethmoid fibers
2. "taste receptors" on specialized olfactory epithelium cells (single chemosensory cells)

13

chemesthesis mediated primarily by ____

TRP receptors (and some taste receptors in nasal epithelium)

14

dentinal tubules contain ____ fibers that extend _____ mm into tubules

A-delta; 0.1-0.2

15

A-delta fibers contain ____ and have ____ and ____ sensitivity

calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP); mechanical; thermal

16

exposed dentin from abrasion and lesions causes _____

sharp pain

17

the pulp chamber contains ____ fibers that contain ____

C fibers; substance P

18

C fibers have ____ sensitivity and chemosensitivity to _____

thermal; inflammatory mediators

19

inflammation to the pulp chamber causes a _____

dull throbbing pain

20

mechanical forces that activate dentinal A-delta fibers

scraping, air blast, osmotic stimulus, dental bur

21

dentinal A fibers can respond to ____, not necessarily applied in the "pain" range; however, the sensation from this type of stimulation is ____

temperature; sharp pain

22

the ethmoid n. is sensitive to smelling ____

salts (ammonia)

23

how capsaicin causes desensitization of primary afferent nociceptor mechanisms

-inactivation of voltage-gated ion channels
-depletion of neuropeptides

24

____ reside in the pulp chamber and contain ____, a neuropeptide

c-fibers; substance P

25

c-fibers respond to ____ and ____ stimuli

temperature; chemical stimuli (inflammatory mediators like bradykinin)

26

____ fibers extend into dentinal tubules and contain ____

a-delta; calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)

27

A-delta fibers have ___ and ____ sensitivity

mechanical; thermal

28

schwann cells proliferate and produce ____ for substrate for regenerating axons

laminin

29

schwann cells secrete ____ which is transported to ganglion cell body

nerve growth factor (NGF)

30

NGF regulates ____ and promotes _____

gene expression; sprouting