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Flashcards in Permanent Mandibular Premolars Deck (110):
1

how many lobes are the mandibular first and second premolars derived from?

  • first premolars - 4 lobes
  • second premolars - 5 lobes; 3 buccal, 2 lingual

2

the mandibular first premolar has a long, well formed ____ cusp, and a small ____ lingual cusp

buccal, nonfunctioning

3

the mandibular first premolar resembles a ___ since only the buccal cusp is in ____

canine, occlusion

4

which of the two mandibular premolars is smaller?

the first premolar; this is opposite of the maxillary premolars

5

the second mandibular premolar has ___ well formed cusps; one large ___ cusp and two smaller ___ cusps

  • 3
  • buccal
  • lingual

6

the mandibular second premolar is more like a small molar due to the _____

high horizontal marginal ridges

7

T or F:
the mandibular first and second premolars are true bicuspids

false

8

how does the mandibular first premolar resemble a canine?

  • long sharp buccal cusp, only one in occlusion
  • buccolingual measurement is smaller
  • occlusal surface slopes lingually in cervical direction
  • mesiobuccal cusp ridge is shorter than the distobuccal
  • outline form of the occlusal resembles the canine

9

how does the mandibular first premolar resembe the second premolar?

  • outline of crown and root from buccal are similar except for longer cusp
  • mesial and distal contact areas are nearly the same level
  • cervical line curvatures mesial and distal are similar
  • tooth has more than one cusp
  • *root of the first premolar is usually shorter than the second*

10

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, form is nearly symmetrical ____

bilaterally

11

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, ___ lobe is well developed with large pointed ___

middle, cusp

12

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, ___ contact areas at nearly the same level

broad

13

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the shape is ____

trapezoidal

14

from from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the cervical line has ____ curvature

very little

15

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the mesial outline is straight above the _____, and may show slight ____ to contact

cervical, concavity

16

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the tip of the ___ cusp is pointed and just ___ to center of crown

buccal, mesial

17

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the distal outline has slight ___ above the cervical line to contact area

concavity

18

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the root is usually 3-4mm ___ than the mandibular canine

shorter

19

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the buccal surface is more ___ than maxillary premolars

convex

20

T or F:

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, you cannot see developmental depressions between the three lobes

false:

you can see developmental depressions between the 3 lobes

21

from the buccal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, a ___ ridge is present from cusp to cervical margin

buccal

22

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, crown tapers toward the ___

lingual

23

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, lingual cusp is ___

small

24

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, it resembles a ___

canine

25

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, mesial and distal surfaces can be seen due to ____

the taper to the lingual

26

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, occlusal surface slopes to the ____ to the short lingual cusp

27

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, most of the ____ surface can be seen

occlusal

28

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, cervical part of the crown is ___, ___, and concavities are seen between ___ and ____

  • narrow
  • convex
  • contacts
  • cervical line

29

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, contact areas and ____ are prominent and extend past _____

  • marginal ridges
  • narrow cervix

30

from the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, lingual cusp, though small, is ___ and ___, and is in line with the _______ with mesial and distal _____ present on either side of the ridge

  • sharp and pointed
  • buccal triangular ridge
  • occlusal fossae

31

describe the mesiolingual developmental groove of the lingual aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars

  • boundary of the mesiobuccal lobe and the lingual lobe
  • extends into the mesial fossa on the occlusal surface
  • helps determine left from right

32

from the mesial aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the shape of the outline is ___

rhomboidal

33

from the mesial aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the tip of the buccal cusp is nearly ____ over the root

centered

34

from the mesial aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the convexity of the ____ outline extends past the root trunk

lingual

35

from the mesial aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the convexity of the ____ outline goes from cervical line with the crest near the _____

  • buccal
  • middle 1/3

36

from the mesial aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, the crest on the lingual is near the ___ and may be in line with ____

  • middle 1/3
  • lingual border of root

37

from the distal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, distal marginal ridge is ___ than mesial with ___ lingual slope and may be at right angles to the ____

  • higher
  • less
  • crown and root

38

from the distal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, most of the surface of the crown is ___, smooth with unbroken curve

convex

39

from the distal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, distal contact area is ____ than the mesial

broader

40

from the distal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, curvature of the cervical line is ___ as the mesial

about the same

41

from the distal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, surface of the root is more ___ than the mesial

convex

42

from the distal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, distal surface slopes ____ toward the lingual than the mesial

more gradually

43

from the occlusal aspect of the 1st mandibular premolars, most common shape is ____.  other shape is ___

  • diamond; this is similar to the mandibular canine
  • circular

44

T or F:

some 1st mandibular premolars will be like mandibular  2nd premolars from the occlusal aspect

true

45

T or F:

the mandibular 2nd premolar resembles the 1st premolar from the lingual view

false:

they resemble each other only from the buccal view

46

what are the differences between the 1st and 2nd mandibular premolars?

2nd premolar is...

  • less pronounced buccal cusp
  • larger and better developed

47

what are the 2 common forms of the mandibular 2nd premolar?

  • 3-cusp (more angular)
  • 2-cusp

48

the mandibular 2nd premolar has a single root that is ___ and ___ than the 1st premolars root

larger and longer

49

T or F:

you may see a deep developmental groove lingually on the mandibular 2nd premolar

false:

deep developmental groove is on the buccal surface

50

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the crown and root are ___ bucco-lingually than the 1st premolar

wider

51

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the buccal cusp is not so centered over root and is ____ than the 1st premolar

shorter

52

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, there is a ____ lingual lobe development when compared to the 1st premolar

greater

53

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the marginal ridges are at ____ to long axis of the tooth

right angles

54

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, you will see ____ occlusal surface when compared to the 1st premolar

less

55

is there a mesiolingual developmental groove seen from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar?

no

56

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the root is ___, with a slight ___ on mesial surface when compared tothe 1st premolar

  • longer
  • convexity

57

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the apex is more ___ when compared to the 1st premolar

blunt

58

from the distal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, it is similar to mesial except ___ of the occlusal surface can be seen

more

59

from the distal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, marginal ridge is at a ___ level than the mesial

lower

60

crowns of all posterior teeth dip ___ as part of the ____

  • distally
  • curve of spee

61

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, 3-cusp type appears more ___ from lingual to buccal cusp ridges, and the 2-cusp type appears more ___

  • square
  • round

62

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the buccal cusp is the largest, followed by the ___ and ___

  • mesio-lingual
  • disto-lingual

63

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, triangular ridges converge in a central pit and is ___ shaped

Y

64

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the central pit is located midway between the ___ and the ____

  • buccal cusp ridge
  • lingual margin of the occlusal surface

65

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, mesial developmental groove goes ____ and ends in ___

  • mesiobuccally
  • mesial triangular fossa

66

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the distal developmental groove goes ___ and is ___

  • disto-buccally
  • shorter

67

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the mesiolingual cusp is ___ mesiodistally than distolingual cusp, so that the lingual developmental groove is ___ to the center of the crown

  • wider
  • distal

68

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, will see ____ radiating from developmental grooves

supplemental grooves

69

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, on occasion, a groove may cross over a ____

marginal ridge

70

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the outline is ___ lingual to the buccal cusp ridges

round

71

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, mesiolingual and distolingual line angles are ____

rounded

72

from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, there is ___ well-develped lingual cusp opposite to the buccal cusp

one

73

describe the central developmental groove of the mandibular 2nd premolar

  • straight
  • crescent shape
  • ends are mesial and distal fossae
  • may have developmental pits in these terminations
  • may have a developmental depression crossing the distolingual cusp ridge

74

the pulp cavity of the mandibular 1st premolar is similar to the ____ with usually ___ canal

  • mandibular canine
  • one

75

1st premolar may have prominent pulp horn on ____

buccal

76

1st premolar has ___ pulp chamber

large

77

2nd premolar has ___ pulp chamber than the 1st premolar

larger

78

2nd premolar has ___ prominent pulp horns than the 1st premolar

more

79

pulp chambers of 1st and 2nd mandibular premolars are similar from what aspect?

mesio-distal

80

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, the distance from cervical line to lingual root is about ___ that of the buccal root

2/3

81

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, describe the mesiobuccal lobe development

it is prominent with a prominent marginal ridge

82

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, is a mesiolingual developmental groove seen?

yes

83

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, which ridge parallels the marginal ridge?

triangular ridge

84

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, the cervical line curves ___ by about 1mm, or it may be ___

  • occlusally
  • straight across

85

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, the surface is smooth except for the ____

developmental groove

86

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, what is just below the contact area?

there is a concave area going to the cervical line

87

from the mesial aspect of the mandibular 1st premolar, the mesial surface of the root is smooth from ___ to the ___.  a developmental groove or even a shallow depression may end in a ___

  • buccal
  • center
  • bifurcation at the apical 1/3

88

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

____ is most of the bulk of the tooth

middle buccal lobe

89

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

___ buccal ridge

prominent

90

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

rounded, yet prominent, ___ and ___ line angles

mesiobuccal and distobuccal

91

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

broad contact areas just lingual to ___ line angles, with ___ contact area being broadest

  • buccal
  • distal

92

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

crown converges from contact area rapidly to ___

lingual

93

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

well developed ___ ridges

marginal

94

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

ligual cusp is ___

small

95

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

buccal triangular ridge on occlusal is ___, lingual triangular ridge is ___

  • heavy
  • small

96

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

two depressions on occlusal surface are the ___ and ___

mesial and distal fossae

97

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

most forms have a ___ which makes the mesial contact area small so that it contacts with canine 

mesiolingual developmental depression groove

98

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

mesial fossa is ___ in form from which the mesial developmental groove goes ___

  • linear
  • buccolingually

99

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

distal fossa is ___ in form and may have a distal developmental groove that is ___ shaped

  • circular
  • crescent

100

characteristics common to mandibular 1st and 2nd premolars:

most of the buccal surface can be seen from the ___ view

occlusal

101

from the buccal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the ___ cusp is shorter compared to the 1st premolar

buccal

102

from the buccal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the buccal cusp shows ___ angulation than the 1st premolar

less

103

from the buccal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, contact areas appear ___ due to ___

  • higher
  • shorter cusp

104

from the buccal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the root is ___ mesiodistal than the 1st premolar

broader

105

from the buccal aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the apex of the root is more ___ than the 1st premolar

blunt

106

from the lingual aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, lingual lobes have ___ development, and the cusps are ___

  • more 
  • longer

107

from the lingual aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, more or less of the occlusal surface can be seen compared to the 1st premolar?

less occlusal surface is seen in the 2nd premolar

108

from the lingual aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, in the 3-cusp type, which cusps are seen? which is the largest/longest of the two that are visible?

  • mesiolingual and distolingual cusps
  • mesiolingual is largest/longest

109

from the lingual aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, in the 2-cusp type, the ___ cusp is as long as the 3-cusp type and may show a ___ where the lingual cusp ridge joins the ___

  • lingual
  • developmental depression
  • distal marginal ridge

110

from the lingual aspect of the mandibular 2nd premolar, the root is wide, but not as wide as the ___ portion, and has ___ lingual convergence than the 1st premolar

  • buccal
  • less