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Flashcards in Pestana Ophthalmology Deck (17)
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3 ophthalmologic conditions that affect children

congenital cataract


What is amblyopia and what is it usually caused by?

vision impairment that results from an inability of the brain to correctly process and merge visual input from both eyes during the first 6-7 yrs of life, commonly due to misalignment of the eyes (strabismus)
As a result, the brain suppresses vision input from the eye and, even if the eye is perfectly normal, resulting in permanent cortical blindness


What is strabismus?
Sequelae if not surgically corrected?

misalignment of the two eyes (can be esotropia (eyes cross in) or exotropia (eyes turn out)

Can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye)


How do you diagnose strabismus

flashlight - reflection of the light comes from different areas of the cornea in each eye


What should a white pupil in a baby make you think of? 2

Retinoblastoma or congenital cataract


∆ btwn cataracts and glaucoma

cataract - clouding of the normally clear lens
glaucoma - increased intraocular/fluid pressure


5 ophthalmologic emergencies

chemical burns of the eye
acute angle glaucoma
retinal detachment
embolic occlusion of the retinal artery
orbital cellulitis

'Orbital CARE"


how does acute angle glaucoma present?

- very severe eye pain or frontal HA, typically begins in the evening when the pupils have been dilated for severeal hours (ex: post TV/movie marathon)
- pts report seeing halos around lights
- pupil is mid-dilated and non-reactive to light
- cornea is cloudy with greenish hue
- eye feels "hard as a rock"


acute angle glaucoma treatment?

- laser beam (to drill hole in iris to provide drainage route for fluid in anterior chamber)

while awaiting for the ophthalmologist:
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (Diamox)
- topical ß blockers
- a2 agonist
- mannitol
- pilocarpine


How does orbital cellulitis present?

eyelids are hot, tender, red, swollen
pupil is dilated and fixed
eye has very limited ROM


orbital cellulitis treatment?

emergency CT and drainage


treatment of chemical burns of the eye

massive irrigation with plain water/NS ASAP


symptoms of retinal detachment

pt reports
- seeing flashes of light
- having floaters in the eye (# of floaters give a rough idea of the magnitude of the problem)


retinal detachment treatment

laser "spot welding" to protect the remaining retina


symptoms of embolic occlusion of the retinal artery

sudden loss of vision in one eye


management of an elderly person who suddenly develops vision loss in one eye

think embolic occlusion of the retinal artery!!

Tx: breathe into paper bag and repeatedly press hard+release pressure on the eye while en route to the ER (idea is to vasodilate and shake the clot into a more distal location so that the ischemic area is smaller)


Patients diagnosed with Type I DM develop eye problems after how many years?

~20 years