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Flashcards in PH Deck (27):
1

9 Healthy living services

Smoking Obesity Alcohol
Physical activity Sexual health Men’s health
Substance misuse Minor ailments Long-term conditions

2

The three levels that comprise the
tiered framework are

promotion (Level 1), prevention (Level 2) and protection (Level 3)

3

Healthy Living Champion

1trained
and accredited to provide customers with health and wellbeing advice
2must be appointed to support the important health and wellbeing role of the HLP - does training course

4

Medical approach to health primary secondary and tertiary

Primary (prevent onset of disease) – e.g. immunisation
Secondary (identifying disease at an early stage to prevent disease progression) – e.g. cervical screening
Tertiary (reducing further disability and suffering in those already ill) – e.g. rehabilitation

5

Behavior change approach is...
2 problems...

Tells people to change
Blame? Assumes people can change?

6

Education approach... eg...

Doesn't try to persuade. Increases knowledge
eg. smoking kills

7

2 disadvantages of education (such as smoking kills)?

Convinces those who are already aligned with those beliefs
Unmotivated MAY become interested through a peripheral route

8

Empowerment approach

People identify their own concerns and gain skills to act upon them.
Individual/community level with health promoter to catalyst

9

2 eg. of social change approach

smoking ban in pubs
vending machines band in schools

10

problems with the empowerment approach

vague positive benifits

11

Social change approach

social, policy & environment change. Focuses on the causes of ill health

12

5 Change approaches

Social
Behaviour
Enpowerment
Education
Medical

13

Health is

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

14

Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR)

= death rate taking into account differences in age structure compared to what would be expected in this group if national averages applied
Overall average for England = 100
SMR < 100 implies lower mortality

15

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

= number of deaths in the first year of life per 1000 live births

16

Objective measures of health

-Health indicators
Height
Weight
Dental health (decayed teeth)

-Behaviour indicators:
No. smoking/drinking/exercising/druging
-Environmental: air/water/housing quality/density
-Socio-economic factors: wealth

17

Subjective measures of heath

-Funcitonal ability
-Health status
-Psycological wellbeing
-Social networks & support

18

Functional ability

is the ability to perform everyday tasks

19

How to measure health status

-Short form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)
QALY
Quality of life

20

What is QUALY?

life expectancy with adjustment for the quality of the remaining life years

21

PROM

patient record outcome measures - Standardised, validated questionnaires that are completed by patients to measure their perceptions of their own functional status and well-being’

22

When is PROM used

before and after elective surgery

23

There is good evidence for pharmacy PH improvement in what areas

CV
BP
heart failure (reduce hospitalization)
diabetes
asthma
smoking

24

EHC - are we helping?

Women like it. But does it change our behaviour? Does it decrease pregnancy?

25

Substance misuse - are we helping?

No evidence

26

Alcohol/chamydia/immunisation/obesity are we helping?

no evidcence

27

Minor aliments are we helping?

Relieves the GP burden but dont know if it improve health