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Flashcards in Pharma of the Eye Deck (10)
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Dipivefrin

Mixed alpha, beta agonist

Treatment of: OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA
- alpha adrenoceptor Agonist: stimulate alpha 2 receptors on CILIARY BODY and alpha 1 receptors on CILIARY VESSELS

PRODRUG metabolized to EPINEPHRINE

1

Epinephrine

Circulating Increases aqueous humor production by acting on Beta 1 adrenoceptor on ciliary body

Treatment of Open Angle Glaucoma: alpha adrenoceptor stimulation (alpha 2) on ciliary body or alpha 1 on ciliary vessels reduces aqeuous humor production

2

Apraclonidine

Alpha 2 selective agonist

Works by binding alpha 2 receptors on ciliary body to decrease aqeuous humor production

Treats for Open Angle Glaucoma

3

Betaxolol

Beta adrenoceptor antagonist

Beta 1 selective

Blocks Beta 1 on ciliary body to reduce aqueous humor production

Treatment of OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA

4

Carteolol, Levobunolol, metipranolol, BETAXOLOL

Beta non-selective antagonists

Blocks beta 1 receptors on ciliary body

5

Carbachol, Pilocarpine

Cholinergic Agonist

Used to increase aqueous humor drainage

Miotics, STIMULATES M3 receptors on iris and ciliary body


May improve UVEOSCLERAL OUTFLOW
Topical treatment which tightens the iris temporarily

6

Atropine

Cholinergic Antagonist

May elicit acute Glaucoma
- Muscarinic receptor antagonist that blocks accomodation reflex (cycloplegia)

Melanin may bind this drug and sequester it leading to prolonged effect

Elicits Mydriasis

7

Cyclopentolate

Muscarinic Antagonist

Used to Elicit Mydriasis

Duration of effect: 1 day

8

Acetazolamide, Dichlorphenamide, Dorzolamide

Carbonic anhydrase Inhibitor

Used in treatment of OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA

Reduces HCO3 production and reduces Aqueous Humor Production

9

Botulism Toxin A

Used to treat neuromuscular problems affecting extraocular muscles:
- Squint and blepharospasm (eyelid spasm)