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Nursing The Hospitalized Adult > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (36):
1

what is pharmacology?

the scientific study of the action of drugs on living animals and humans.

2

What is a drug category/classification?

Effect on a particular body system.
what symptoms it relieves

3

Chemical name?

medication’s chemical composition and molecular structure

4

Generic name?

assigned by the manufacturer/company who first develops the medication

EX: acetaphinomen

5

Trade/Brand name?

name of the drug chosen and copyrighted by the manufacturer. One drug may have several trade names.

EX: tylenol

6

Pharmacokinetics?

absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs

related to the concentration of the drug and/or its chemical byproducts in various body sites

7

Absorption (bioavailabilty)?

process by which a drug passes into the blood stream

8

Factors affecting absorption?

Route of administration, Dosage Form, Acid (pH) medium in the stomach, Presence or absence of food, Blood circulation to site of absorption,

9

Distribution?

process by which a drug is carried from its site of absorption to its site of action.

10

Factors affecting distribution?

Body weight and composition
Adequate blood supply (tissue perfusion)
Plasma protein binding capacity
Drug molecules that are bound to protein are pharmacologically inactive
Drug molecules that are unbound are active
Blood brain barrier

11

Metabolism?

process by which drugs are inactivated or transformed by the body so they can be more easily excreted. Metabolism occurs primarily in the liver stemming from the reaction of liver enzymes with the drug

12

Factors affecting metabolism?

Liver function, Age, Nutritional status

13

Excretion?

refers to the elimination of a drug from the body

– may be eliminated unchanged or in the form of metabolites. Most drugs are excreted via the kidneys, however drugs/ metabolites can also be excreted in feces, saliva, sweat, lungs, bile and breast milk.

14

Factors affecting excretion?

Kidney Function, Liver Function, Age

15

Factors Affecting Medication Action?

Age/developmental factors
Gender/body size/weight and composition
Genetics/culture/ethnicity
Lifestyle habits
Psychological factors
Illness and disease
Time of Administration

16

Effects of drugs?

Therapeutic: desired or primary effect

Side Effects/Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs): all drugs have a potential to cause secondary effects or a response not related to the therapeutic effect. Usually it is undesired and unintended

17

Drug Allergy/Sensitivity?

immunological reaction to a drug. can occur within minutes or up to two weeks after

18

Toxic Effect?

poisoning; which is related to the dose of the drug being given

19

Anaphylactic reaction /shock?

severe allergic reaction usually occurring within seconds of administration

20

Drug Tolerance?

Body becomes accustomed to a drug over a period of time, therefore requiring a higher dose to attain the same effect.

21

Cumulative Effect?

the action of repeated doses of drugs that are not eliminated from the body

22

Idiosyncratic Effect?

occurs when an individual’s response to a drug is extreme sensitivity in low dosage, extreme sensitivity in high dosage, or a response that is quite different from the usual (bizarre)

23

Potentiating or Synergistic Effect?

interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects

24

Decreased or Inhibiting Effect?

Interactions that decrease a drug’s effect

25

Drug Abuse?

inappropriate intake of a substance, either continually or periodically

26

Drug Dependence?

reliance on or need to take a drug or substance.


two types of drug dependence: psychological and physical.

27

Pharmacodynamics?

impact of drugs on the body

28

Agonist?

drug that has a direct action on a receptor and alters its functional properties.

29

Antagonist?

drug that interacts with a cell receptor without stimulating it and blocks the action of other drugs

30

Actions of drugs on the body?

Half-life: the time required for the elimination/metabolism process to reduce the concentration of the drug to one-half of its original dosage.
Example: if a drug’s half-life is eight hours, then the amount of the drug in the body is as follows:
Initially: 100%
After 8 hours: 50%
After 16 hours: 25%
After 24 hours: 12.5%
After 32 hours: 6.25%

31

Onset of action?

time after administration until the body initially responds to the drug

32

Peak Plasma level?

highest plasma level achieved by a single dose.

33

Duration of action?

Length of time a single dose of a drug produces an effect

34

Plateau?

maintained concentration of a drug in the plasma during a series of scheduled doses

35

Pharmacopiea?

book containing a list of drug products used in medicine, including their descriptions and formulas

36

Information required to take a medication history from a patient?

Known allergies
Prescription drugs taken
Non-prescription drugs taken (OTC, herbal remedies etc.)
Social drugs, drug misuse, drug abuse
Illness – affect on pharmacokinetics
Knowledge of drugs (patient/guardian)
Medication Hx