Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (36):
what is pharmacology?
the scientific study of the action of drugs on living animals and humans.
What is a drug category/classification?
Effect on a particular body system.
what symptoms it relieves
medication’s chemical composition and molecular structure
assigned by the manufacturer/company who first develops the medication
name of the drug chosen and copyrighted by the manufacturer. One drug may have several trade names.
absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs
related to the concentration of the drug and/or its chemical byproducts in various body sites
process by which a drug passes into the blood stream
Factors affecting absorption?
Route of administration, Dosage Form, Acid (pH) medium in the stomach, Presence or absence of food, Blood circulation to site of absorption,
process by which a drug is carried from its site of absorption to its site of action.
Factors affecting distribution?
Body weight and composition
Adequate blood supply (tissue perfusion)
Plasma protein binding capacity
Drug molecules that are bound to protein are pharmacologically inactive
Drug molecules that are unbound are active
Blood brain barrier
process by which drugs are inactivated or transformed by the body so they can be more easily excreted. Metabolism occurs primarily in the liver stemming from the reaction of liver enzymes with the drug
Factors affecting metabolism?
Liver function, Age, Nutritional status
refers to the elimination of a drug from the body
– may be eliminated unchanged or in the form of metabolites. Most drugs are excreted via the kidneys, however drugs/ metabolites can also be excreted in feces, saliva, sweat, lungs, bile and breast milk.
Factors affecting excretion?
Kidney Function, Liver Function, Age
Factors Affecting Medication Action?
Gender/body size/weight and composition
Illness and disease
Time of Administration
Effects of drugs?
Therapeutic: desired or primary effect
Side Effects/Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs): all drugs have a potential to cause secondary effects or a response not related to the therapeutic effect. Usually it is undesired and unintended
immunological reaction to a drug. can occur within minutes or up to two weeks after
poisoning; which is related to the dose of the drug being given
Anaphylactic reaction /shock?
severe allergic reaction usually occurring within seconds of administration
Body becomes accustomed to a drug over a period of time, therefore requiring a higher dose to attain the same effect.
the action of repeated doses of drugs that are not eliminated from the body
occurs when an individual’s response to a drug is extreme sensitivity in low dosage, extreme sensitivity in high dosage, or a response that is quite different from the usual (bizarre)
Potentiating or Synergistic Effect?
interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects
Decreased or Inhibiting Effect?
Interactions that decrease a drug’s effect
inappropriate intake of a substance, either continually or periodically
reliance on or need to take a drug or substance.
two types of drug dependence: psychological and physical.
impact of drugs on the body
drug that has a direct action on a receptor and alters its functional properties.
drug that interacts with a cell receptor without stimulating it and blocks the action of other drugs
Actions of drugs on the body?
Half-life: the time required for the elimination/metabolism process to reduce the concentration of the drug to one-half of its original dosage.
Example: if a drug’s half-life is eight hours, then the amount of the drug in the body is as follows:
After 8 hours: 50%
After 16 hours: 25%
After 24 hours: 12.5%
After 32 hours: 6.25%
Onset of action?
time after administration until the body initially responds to the drug
Peak Plasma level?
highest plasma level achieved by a single dose.
Duration of action?
Length of time a single dose of a drug produces an effect
maintained concentration of a drug in the plasma during a series of scheduled doses
book containing a list of drug products used in medicine, including their descriptions and formulas