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Nursing The Hospitalized Adult > Group Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Group Communication Deck (37):

What is a group?

• Two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships.
• Size: dyads and triads to large collectives (this class, mobs, audiences)
• Connected: members are linked, networked • Social, interpersonal connection


Bronfenbrenner’ s bioecological theory?

Interaction between the individual and their environment= relationships.




consists of the immediate settings, activities, & personal relationships of the individual. e.g. families, classroom, workplace, & recreational group.



is of the made up of the relationships between the different settings in which the person spends time. e.g. relationships between families & schools, workplaces & schools.



is a set of social structure that do not directly contain the individual but exert direct influences .e.g. health care system, educational system, the justice system & religious institutions.



consists of all the elements contained in the above systems, as well as the general underlying philosophical, cultural orientation and values by which the person lives.


Small group Communication?

INTERACTION that occurs when a small # of people meet together & share a common purpose.
• Nurses get together to form small groups from the MICROSYSTEM . e.g. to work on committees, lead pt support gps, form research teams, participate in pt care conferences.
• An effective small group has members that feel accepted, are comfortable in sharing ideas & thoughts openly & honestly, are able to actively listen and consider other’s points of views.


What are groups?

Groups are systems that create, organize, and sustain interaction among members
 Relationship Interaction – actions performed by the group relating to emotional and interpersonal bonds
 Task Interaction – actions performed by individuals pertaining to group’s tasks and goals


Characteristics of Effective Groups?

Task oriented groups probably have:
• clear and inspiring shared goals
• a results-driven structure, have an agenda
• competent team members with pertinent experience
• a collaborative climate,
• high standards for performance
• external support and recognition
• ethical and accountable leadership.


Structure of a group?

Groups structure are often organized in predictable patterns ( Birds of a feather flock together !)
• Roles – set of behaviours expected of people who occupy certain positions
• Norms – a consensual standard that describes what behaviors should and should not be performed in a given context


Examples of Group Norms?

Engage mentally and emotionally and remain
• Speak honestly and with consideration and respect of others and their efforts
• Accept ambiguity (for a reasonable period of time) before expecting decision-making or action.
• Maintain confidentiality
• Place cell phones on silent
• Speak up, don’t keep it to yourself


Group Socialization?

Process of teaching and learning the norms and expectations associated with group interaction and group member behaviors.


Groups are dynamic systems STAGES?
tuckerman theory?

 Storming
 Norming


Forming of groups?

Most team members are positive and polite • Some are anxious
• Others may be excited about the task
• The leader plays a dominant role at this stage, because the team’s responsibilities aren’t clear



People start to push against boundaries established in the previous stage
• Often because people have conflicting work styles
• If the styles cause problems, members may become uncomfortable or frustrated



Gradually, the group moves into the norming stage when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate each other’s strengths
• May help each other more, socialize together, ask for help
• People ideally develop a stronger commitment to the goal



Hard work, without friction leads to the achievement to the group’s goal
• The leader can delegate some work
• The group works better, people who may join or leave
the group won’t disrupt performance
• Adjourning: when people feel saddened when the group has completed it’s job, because they are satisfied with the outcome.


Participants Work Best When There Is?

• Participation: Group members feel better when they feel included in discussion and a part of the functioning of the group.
• Messages. Confirming messages help build relational dimensions within a group, and clear, organized, and relevant messages help build task dimensions within a group.
• Feedback. Positive, constructive, and relevant feedback contribute to group climate.


Participants Work Best When?

Equity. Aside from individual participation, group members also like to feel as if participation is managed equally within the group and that appropriate turn taking is used.
• Clear and accepted roles. Group members like to know how status and hierarchy operate within a group. Knowing the roles isn’t enough to lead to satisfaction, though—members must also be comfortable with and accept those roles.
• Motivation. Member motivation is activated by


Task Roles?

 initiating
 brainstorming
 seeking information
 giving information
 seeking opinions  giving opinions  clarifying
 elaborating
 summarizing


Maintenance roles?

Activities that keep the group harmonious
 harmonizing
 consensus testing  encouraging
 compromising
You need people to fill the task roles as well as the maintenance roles in order for the group to function well.


Maintenance Roles?

Encouraging: being friendly, warm, responsive to others
• Accepting others
• Recognizing contribution by others
• Harmonizing: attempting to reconcile disagreements, reduce tension
• Expressing group feelings
• Compromising: if there is a conflict or the group is stuck on something, offering
suggestions to solve this


Self-Centered Roles?

Dominating: asserting authority or superiority
to manipulate members
• Interrupting others
• Controlling through use of flattery • Degrading: putting others down
• Uncooperative
Withdrawing: removing self psychologically, not talking, answering questions briefly


More Self-Centered Roles?

group clown
nitpicker, blocker
 recognition- seeker
topic jumper
 bragger  aggressor  playboy


Characteristics of Effective Groups?

a sense of urgency and direction, purpose and goals
• a lot of work at the start setting a tone, setting a "contract," specifying a clear set of rules
• clear notion of what the problem is
• broad sense of shared responsibility for the group
outcomes and group process
• effective ways of making decisions and shared leadership

confronting differences; confronts conflict

High level of negativity and passivity
• Quick problem solving; lack of clarity about what
problem is
• A lot of win-lose situations among members
• Dominance by one or two members; power plays • Mistaking silence for support


Dealing with Difficult Group Members?


#1 The Monopolizer: Only one or two people do all the talking.
• Others seem frustrated and/or hold back their ideas.
• People are being cut off or their contributions are being ridiculed.

Dealing with this: Structure discussions so that everyone can participate – give each person an opportunity to speak
Have individuals write suggestions before the meeting


Dealing with Difficult Group Members?
The Hostile Member

Let them speak. Ask “How do you feel about this?
Let’s review the facts and the evidence.”
Try to give them some time to speak and then move on to the next person.
Focus on the behavior, not the person.
Stay in the realm of neutral enforcers such as
ground rules, rather than attacking individuals.
The group leader may also try to talk to the individual away from the other members
You need to handle resistance in a way that does not create more negative feelings
• Create opportunities to vent
• Be willing to listen – you don’t have to agree
with them
• Create ways to help people through the change


Dealing with Difficult Group Members?

The Quiet Member

The chair can encourage a greater contribution by asking the member for their opinion during meetings and discussions.

If the non-contributor is merely shy or uncomfortable about voicing his or her opinion, a direct approach might help to bring them out of their shell.
• Similarly, non-contributors might be more than happy to take on board tasks but could be unwilling to push themselves foreward


Dealing with Difficult Group Members?

Resistant to Change

Own the change
• Listen to the resistant member
• Help the resistant member identify what’s in it for them
• Give the person some kind of control over any aspect of the change that they can manage


Leadership in Groups?

Not all leaders are managers and vice-versa
• A leader influences others to work together to
accomplish a goal
• Managers are focused on the task while leaders focus on motivation, vision
• Can be formal or informal
• Formal leaders are named by the organization
• A good leader can change his/her style depending on the situation


Leadership styles?

Authoritarian: they make the decisions for the group
• Determines policies and gives orders to the group
• Does not take into account the members’ autonomy, creativity, self-motivation
• Group members can be very unsatisfied with this kind of leader
• Can be very effective in an emergency


Leadership styles?

• Encourages discussion, collaborative decision-making, consensus
• Assumes group members are internally motivated
• Satisfaction and productivity are usually high in a
group like this
• Takes longer to accomplish things



The leader presupposes the group is internally motivated, and has a hands-off approach
• May result in a lack of coordination
• Can be effective with mature, experienced members


Achievement Oriented?

Strive for excellence and set challenging goals, constantly seeking improvement and believing their members can meet these expectations


Decision Making

Majority Rule?

common – majority & 1 Pros:
• Quick, efficient in large groups
• Each vote counts equally
• Close decisions may reduce buy-in (both internal and external)
• Those who voted for the minority may feel alienated


Decision Making?


All members of the group must agree
• Usually takes longer
• Often leads to high quality decisions
• Members are usually much more committed to the decision
• May cause conflicts within group during the discussions


Decision Making?

Minority Rule

A designated authority or expert has final say over a decision and may or may not consider the input of other members
• Buy-in will depend on group members level of respect for the authority