Teaching and learning #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Teaching and learning #2 Deck (27):
1

#1 To seek and obtain health care assistance when exposed to some condition (physical, biological, environmental ) which is known to produce a disease.

go to the doctor

Changes in human structure, in physical functioning or in behaviour or habits of daily living cause a person to seek answers to:
What is wrong?
What is happening?
What should I do?

2

# 2 To be aware of and attend to the effects and results of pathology.

Health deviations often bring about feeling of illness or of not being able to function normally.

The health deviation is something the person must live with and live through.

pt with hypertension must check their BP

3

# 3 To effectively carry out medically prescribed diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitative measures.

diagnostic ex: getting regular blood tests when taking anticoagulants

Ex: taking medication when you are suppose to

4

# 4 To monitor, regulate, or overcome the discomforting or harmful effects of the treatment plan.

ex: taking anti-medics, keeping hydrated

5

# 5 To modify the self-concept in accepting one’s health state and need for health care.

Ex: learning to accept changes to the body like an amputation

6

#6 To make lifestyle changes in response to the health state.

ex: low fat diet
low salt diet for hypertension pt

7

Outcomes of Learning?

1. Develop learning outcome (behaviour) for each learning need.

2. Outcome has to be observable and measurable

3. Outcome should be precise describing the timing and conditions under which the behaviour occurs.

4. Learning outcome should serve as a guide to evaluating teaching.

8

Develop learning outcome (behaviour) for each learning need.?

What you want the pt to learn


Recall expected outcomes from NP classes!!!!
State the learner behaviour/performance, NOT the teacher/nurse behaviour:

EXAMPLE:
Identify risk factors for heart disease (learner behaviour)
NOT
Teach patient about cardiac risk factors (teacher/nurse behaviour)

9

Outcome has to be observable and measurable?

Observable: visible (walking, performing ROM exercises etc.)
Measurable: how will you know that the performance was mastered???
EXAMPLE:
Selects low fat foods from the menu
NOT
Understands low fat diet
DO NOT USE WORDS: knows, understands, believes

10

Outcome should be precise describing the timing and conditions under which the behaviour occurs?

must be measurable, observable, singular, timely
What?
Where?
When?
How?
EXAMPLE:
Pt lists 3 things that affect blood glucose level by (time)
NOT
Pt knows what affects BG levels.

11

Identifying Learner Outcomes : Cognitive Domain?

Compares
Defines
Describes
Designs
Differentiates
Explains
Gives examples
Identifies
Lists
Names
Prepares
Plans
Solves
States

12

Identifying Learner Outcomes: Psychomotor Domain?

Adapts
Arranges
Applies
Assembles
Changes
Constructs
Creates
Demonstrates
Manipulates
Moves
Organizes
Shows
Starts
Works

13

Identifying Learner Outcomes:
Affective Domain?

deals with pt emotions

Chooses
Defends
Displays/Exibits
Describes
Expresses
Forms
Gives
Helps
Initiates
Justifies
Revises
Selects
Shares
States
Values

14

domains of learning?

Cognitive domain:
Patient explains the effect of weight on BP by…

Psychomotor domain:
Patient applies BP cuff correctly by…

Affective domain:
Patient states that he feels confident in his ability to obtain correct BP reading by…

15

Identify patient learning outcomes in 3 domains regarding self-administered SQ injection

Psychomotor
Cognitive
Affective

Psychomotor: pt demonstrates technique of sq injection by end of teaching session

Cognitive: pt identifies locations for sq injection by end of teaching session

Affective: pt expresses comfort in giving injection alone by end of session

16

Nursing orders should include?

Content:
-Build on the patient’s existing knowledge
-Make sure content is relevant

Teaching strategy

Learner activity

17

Teaching Methods: psychomotor?

Demonstration
Discovery/Practice
Modeling

Resources / Teaching materials:

Audiovisual materials (computers/Internet)
Printed materials
Physical objects

18

Teaching Methods: cognitive?

Discussion
Discovery
Question and answer
Simulation

Resources / Teaching materials:

Audiovisual materials
Printed materials
Programmed instruction
Computer-assisted instruction programs

19

Teaching Methods: affective?


Role modeling
Role playing
Discussion (one-on-one, group)


Resources / Teaching materials:

Audiovisual materials
Printed materials

20

Timing?

Patient should be receptive, attentive and alert.

Anticipate educational needs so that teaching can occur before discharge

Time between the learning and use of the knowledge or skill learned should be short.

Plan for shorter (15-30 minutes), more frequent teaching sessions (This allows the patient to digest the new material and prevents fatigue).

21

Guidelines 
for Effective 
Teaching?

Establish rapport
Use client’s previous learning to encourage further learning
Choose the best times for learning
Communicate clearly and concisely
Use a layperson’s vocabulary
Be sensitive to teaching pace (too fast or too slow)
Choose the best environment for learning
Use teaching aids to foster learning and focus attention
Involve the senses
Allow learners to discover content for themselves
Use repetition to reinforce learning
Employ “organizers” to introduce material
Choose appropriate anticipated behavioural changes within the context of client’s lifestyle and resources

22

Active Involvement?

People learn better when more than one of the senses is stimulated.
Involvement makes learning more meaningful, increases the rate of learning and improves retention of information.
Promotes critical thinking.

23

Simple to Complex?

Material should be logically organized and proceed form simple to complex

24

Repetition?

Repeat key facts and concepts – facilitates learning
Practice psychomotor skills

25

Feedback?

Most people feel encouraged and supported when their efforts are acknowledged by another person, especially when they value and trust the other person.

Use positive reinforcement to affirm the efforts of patients who have mastered new knowledge, attitudes or skills.

26

Purposes of Evaluation?

Allows the nurse to determine the adequacy of the teaching.

Reinforces correct information/behaviour

Helps the learner identify misconceptions/incorrect behaviour

27

Methods to 
Evaluate Learning?

Cognitive learning:
Direct observation
Written measurements
Oral questioning
Self-reports or self-monitoring

Psychomotor skill:
Observing how well the client carries out the skill
Affective learning

Inferred by the following:
Listening to the client’s responses to questions
Noting how the client speaks about relevant subjects
Observing the client’s behavior