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1. CLASP Alcohol > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (17)
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1

What units can blood concentration be expressed as?

mg of EtOH per 100ml of blood
in milliMolar (mM) units

2

What does one unit =?

8g/10ml of ethanol

3

What are the inhibitory targets of alcohol on the CNS?

glycine and GABAA receptors (cys-loop family)

4

What are the excitory targets of alcohol on the CNS?

acetylcholine and 5-HT3 receptors (cya-loop family)
subtypes of glutamate receptor (excitatory)

5

What causes CNS depression?

enhancement of inhibition and suppression of excitation

6

Where can ethanol bind in the CNS?

intramembrane
extracellular domain

7

What receptor subunits in the brain are involved in distinct aspects of the behavioural effects of ethanol that include reduction of anxiety, sedation and impaired motor coordination?

GABA alpha

8

Which GABA subunit is synaptic and which is extrasynaptic?

synaptic - gamma
extra synaptic - delta

9

Where does Glutamate act?

ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA, AMPA and kainate subtypes)
GPCR glutamate receptors

10

Name an NDMA antagonist that can fight the effects of addiction but give the same feelings?

ketamine

11

What is the reward system in the CNS called?

mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway

12

Where is dopamine released?

Ventral tegmental area (VTA)

13

How is the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) triggered?

signals from the Nucleus accumbens (NAc)

14

What drugs inhibit NAc neurones?

opioids
cannabinoids
PCP
ethanol

15

What drugs enhance dopamine release?

amphetamines
cocaine

16

What occurs in the brain in response to withdrawl?

upregulation of NMDA receptor expression in the brain and downregulation of GABBA alpha receptors

17

What happens after an alcohol withdrawl?

There is an imbalance of excitory and inhibitory influences which causes anxiety, dysphoria and seizures