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Flashcards in Pharmacology - Autonomic Drugs Deck (192)
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1

which part of the nervous system makes no synaptic junction in (ganglia) betw the spinal cord and effector organ?

somatic (voluntary) nervous system

2

are the nerves of the somatic nervous system myelinated?

yes

3

if you section the somatic nn, what happens?

muscle paralysis, resulting in muscular atrophy

*somatic nn regenerate very slowly

4

which part of the nervous system makes synaptic junction in (ganglia) betw the spinal cord and effector organ?

autonomic nervous system

5

are autonomic nn myelinated?

preganglionic fibers are myelinated; postganglionic fibers are not.

6

In the parasympathetic nervous system, where does the cranial outflow originate?

CN's III, VII, IX, & X

7

In the parasympathetic nervous system, where does the sacral outflow originate?

sacral nn = 2, 3, 4

8

Which part of the autonomic nervous system has more preganglionic nn? which one has more postganglionic nn?

more preganglionic to postganglionic nn = parasympathetic sys

more postganglionic to preganglionic = sympathetic sys

9

Where do the SNS's preganglionic nerve fibers originate?

lateral horns of spinal cord (T2 to L2 or L3)

10

What type of innervation does the bronchi have? What about bronchial smooth muscles?

bronchi = sympathetic; bronchial SM = parasympathetic

11

What would happen if you sectioned autonomic nns?

does not completely abolish function of organ bc most of the organs have intrinsic functions

12

What NT does the somatic nerv sys use? And what is the effector organ?

AcH; skeletal muscle (motor)

13

What are the NTs for sympathetic inn to the smooth muscles, cardiac cells, and gland cells? Include pre-/postganglionic.

preganglionic = Ach
postganglionic = NE

14

What are the NTs for sympathetic inn to the sweat glands? Include pre-/postganglionic.

preganglionic = Ach
postganglionic = Ach

15

What are the NTs for sympathetic inn to the adrenal gland's medulla ganglion? Include pre-/postganglionic.

preganglionic = Ach
postganglionic = cells of the medulla which secrete epi/NE

16

How do the postganglionic cells of the adrenal medulla secrete epi/NE?

directly into the blood stream rather than into a synapse

17

What role does NE have in the brain?

for arousal

18

What role does dopamine have in the brain?

motor coordination, pleasure

19

What role does serotonin have in the brain?

appetite, depression

20

What role does glycine have in the CNS?

inhibitory NT in the spinal cord

21

What role does GABA have in the CNS?

suppresses activity of neurons in CNS

22

What is anandamide?

endogenous cpd similar to marijuana that has anti-anxiety effects and related to bliss or delight

23

what are enkaphalins?

endogenous opioids for suppressing pain

24

All of the inner linings of blood vessels in the periphery (endothelial cells) produce what continuously? And what type of nerves supply this?

NO; adrenergic

25

What does NO do?

opposes the excitatory actions of blood vessels (vasodilation, inc blood flow); in smooth muscle it will cause hypotension

26

What are the events occurring during an erection involving NO and NE?

NE is released in blood vessels all the time, but when NO is released during erection, its effect overpower the vasoconstriction caused by NE until ejaculation. Then the NE overpowers the NO lowering the blood flow.

27

What molecule does NO activate during an erection?

activates soluble guanylate cyclase

28

what does guanylate cyclase do?

synthesizes cGMP from GTP

29

_____ is believed to be the main vasoactive nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmitter and chemical mediator of penile erection

Nitric oxide (NO)

30

Acting as a second messenger molecule, ____ regulates the activity of calcium channels as well as intracellular contractile proteins that affect the relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle

cGMP