Pharynx and Larynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharynx and Larynx Deck (36):
1

What does the pharynx connect?

Connects oral and nasal cavities to esophagus and larynx

2

Pharynx's walls

Posterior and lateral = complete
Anterior = incomplete
- Formed by back of tongue and larynx

3

What separates the pharynx from the prevertebral muscles?

Loose connective tissue, retropharyngeal (retrovisceral) space

4

What does the larynx connect? What is it's nickname?

Connects pharynx to trachea (thus making it part of resp system)
Called "voice organ"

5

Larynx's location on vertebrae

C3 - C6 (think larynx has 6 letters)

6

Function of larynx
Size in males vs females

Fxn: Helps control OPENING and CLOSING of airway during breathing, swallowing, sneezing/coughing, and speech

Males: larger larynx following puberty

7

Name the laryngeal cartilage

Unpaired:
Thyroid
Cricoid
Epiglottic

Paired:
Arytenoid
Corniculate
Cuneiform

8

Thyroid cartilage
- Size, laminae shape, notch

Largest laryngeal cartilage

Consists of 2 laminae -- form horseshoe shaped structure

Laryngeal notch formed

9

Where is the Adam's apple formed?

Thyroid cartilage gives rise externally to it

Adam's Apple = laryngeal prominence

10

Cricoid cartilage
- shape, articulates with

Ring shaped - inferior to thyroid cart.

Articulates with inferior horns of thyroid and arytenoid cart

Narrow ring (anterior); wider ring (posterior)

11

Epiglottic cartilage (epiglottis)
- shape, type of cart, function

Leaf shaped

Elastic cartilage

"Flap" covering entrance to the airway

12

Arytenoid cartilage
- shape, articulation

2 pyramidal shaped hyaline cartilages

Articulate with: cricoid cartilage via synovial joint that allows lots of movement

13

Arytenoid cartilage: vocal ligaments & intrinsic laryngeal muscles

Vocal ligaments:
- Attach to vocal processes of the arytenoids
- Span the thyroid cartilage

Intrinsic laryngeal muscles:
- Two
- Attach to muscular process of arytenoid

14

Corniculate cartilage (location)

Cuneiform cartilage (location, fxn)

Both are: 2 small, elastic cartilages

Corniculate:
- Rest on top of the arytenoids

Cuneiform:
- Sit near corniculate cartilages
- Help support vocal folds and epiglottis

15

False vocal fold

True vocal fold

False - lies above the ventricle

True - lies below the ventricle and modulates sounds for speech by closing off airway

16

Ventricle
Rima glottids

Ventricle - space between false and true folds

Rima glottids - space between true vocal folds (the "glottis" is the vocal folds) "rim of glottis"

17

Extrinsic larynx muscles
- Elevators & depressors of larynx

Elevators:
Thyrohyoid
Suprahyoid
Stylopharyngeus
Palatopharyngues

Depressors: (SOS)
Sternothyroid
Omohyoid
Sternohyoid

18

Intrinsic larynx muscles

Cricothyroid
Arytenoids
Posterior cricoarytenoid (only ABDuctor of the vocal folds)**
Lateral cricoarytenoid
Thyroarytenoid

19

Intrinsic muscles function

Control action of vocal folds to open/close rima glottidis
Tense/relax vocal folds

20

Pharyngeal wall layers:
External fibrous layer

Internal fibrous layer

E - Buccopharyngeal fascia

I - Pharyngobasilar fascia

21

Outer layer of voluntary muscle

Circular in orientation
3 pharyngeal constrictors (superior, middle, inferior)

22

Inner layer of voluntary muscle
(I-LSP)

Longitudinal in orientation
Stylopharyngues and palatopharyngeus muscles

23

Nasopharynx

Choanae

Nasal pharynx

Open up into the anterior part of the nasopharynx

24

Auditory tubes; "Torus tubarius"

Open into lateral wall of nasopharynx
Bulge over end of cartilaginous tube - "torus tubarius"

25

Pharyngeal recess

Narrow space in nasopharynx

26

Soft palate

Pharyngeal isthmus (nasopharyngeal isthmus)

SP: separates nasopharynx from oropharynx

PI: communication between parts of the pharynx

27

Pharyngeal (nasopharyngeal) tonsil

In superior region of posterior wall of nasopharynx

28

Adenoids

= Enlargement

Block the auditory tube --> hearing impairment

Obstruct choanae or pharyngeal isthmus --> mouth breathing and an abnormal voice

29

Oropharynx (oral pharynx)
- where it connects at

Faucial isthmus

Connects oral cavity at oropharyngeal isthmus between:
Palatoglossal folds

FI:
Deeper passageway -
Including oropharyngeal isthmus, extending to:
Palatopharyngeal folds

30

Lingual tonsil
- location

Palatine tonsils
- location

Lingual tonsil
- Covers posterior part of tongue

Palatine tonsil aka "the tonsils"
- Space between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal folds called tonsillar fossa

31

Valleculae

Depressions btwn tongue & epiglottis

Swallowed objects can lodge here and get stuck

Guides food to pharyngopharynx

32

Laryngopharynx (laryngeal pharynx)

Posterior to larynx

Communicates with inlet of:
- larynx: anteriorly
- esophagus: inferiorly

33

Piriform recess

Lateral to cricoid cartilage

Swallowed items can also get stuck here bc it's narrow at the top and wider at bottom (piri = pear shaped)

34

Soft palate
- S: VURA

"Velum" (sail)

Uvula is included

Rich in mucous/seromucous glands on inferior part - rest of palate is muscle

Attached to the hard palate anteriorly - grades into walls of pharynx laterally

35

Nerve innervations
- Tensor veli palatini muscle
- Stylopharyngeus muscle
- Rest of soft palate and pharyngeal wall

TVP - mandibular division of trigeminal nerve

SPG - glossopharyngeal nerve

Rest of muscles - VAGUS nerve

36

Auditory tube - function

Keep air in middle ear cavity

Equilibrate air pressure in middle ear w/ atmosphere pressure

Allows optimal sensitivity to sound by equilibrating on both sides of ear drum

If air is absorbed and replaced by serous fluid --> chronic obstruction