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A.P. Biology > Photosynthesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Photosynthesis Deck (37):
1

photosynthesis

process that converts solar energy into chemical energy

2

autotrophs

sustain themselves without consuming other organisms

3

heterotrophs

obtain organic material by consuming other organisms

4

chloroplasts

structurally similar to and probably evolved from photosynthetic bacteria

5

chlorophyll

green pigment in chloroplasts

6

how many chloroplasts in each mesophyll cell

30-40

7

stomata

pores on leaf that allow passage of CO2 and O2

8

thylakoid

stacked columns (gana) that contain chlorophyll

9

stroma

fluid inside chloroplasts

10

chemical reaction for photosynthesis

6CO2 + 12H2O + light -> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2

11

what is reduced in photosynthesis

carbon dioxide

12

what is oxidized in photosynthesis

water

13

what happens to the carbon in carbon dioxide

used to make glucose

14

what happens to the oxygen in carbon dioxide

used to make glucose and water

15

what happens to the hydrogen in water

used to make glucose and water

16

what happens to oxygen in water

released as oxygen gas

17

light reactions occur where

thylakoid

18

what 4 things happen in the light reactions

split water
release oxygen
reduce NADP+ to NADPH
generate ATP from ADP via phosphorylation

19

calvin cycle occurs where

stroma

20

calvin cycle begins with

carbon fixation

21

which color light does chlorophyll use best

violet-blue and red light

22

what does an action spectrum show

how effective a wavelength is for driving a process

23

photosystem

reaction center complex surrounded by light-harvesting complexes

24

photosystem II

absorbs wavelength of 680nm

25

photosystem I

absorbs wavelength of 700nm

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linear electron flow

primary pathway that uses both photosystems and produces ATP and NADPH

27

cyclic electron flow

uses only photosystem I, boosts ATP production, provides energy for cytochrome complex (pumps H+ into thylakoid)

28

carbon enters calvin cycle as

CO2

29

carbon leaves calvin cycle as

G3P

30

carbon fixation

rubisco combines RUBP and CO2 into 3-phosphoglycerate

31

reduction phase

ATP gives phosphate to 3-phosphoglycerate - becomes 1-3 bisphosphoglycerate - loses phosphate and becomes G3P

32

regeneration

5 of the G3P molecules accept phosphate to become RUBP, the other one goes towards glucose

33

what conditions favor photorespiration

hot and dry climates

34

how do C4 plantss minimize the cost of photorespiration

incorporating CO2 into 4-carbon compounds

35

C4 plants require what enzyme

PEP carboxylase

36

in C4 plants, what special cells are the carbon compounds transported to

bundle sheath cells

37

how do CAM plants reduce the cost of photorespiration

open stomata at night to let CO2 in, store it ass organic acid; close stomata during the day, and CO2 is released as it is used in the Calvin cycle